THE IMPACT OF BIO-DATA OF DRIVERS ON THE LEVEL OF ROAD ACCIDENTS IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ONITSHA-OWERRI HIGHWAY)
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1.1.BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The occurrence of fatal road accidents in Nigeria is alarming. Road accidents in Nigeria overtime have witnessed an unprecedented geometric rise. This has been a major concern to both the populace and the government, this is because a lot of properties loved ones and other valuables have been lost as a result of this malady. Road accidents don’t just occur, they are caused. Given the fact that Nigeria has one of the highest road accidents rate as well as the largest number of death per 10,000 vehicles (Bala 2010), one may be prompted to believe that the level of awareness on the major causes of road traffic accidents is very low among Nigerians. On the contrary, however; Okoro (2010) has shown that Nigerians a well informed on the major causes of accidents. Accidents are defined as anything that happens by chance or anything occurring unexpectedly; Odegbami (2011). Road traffic accident is therefore an unexpected phenomenon that occurs as a result of the use of vehicles on highways. Accidents can either be fatal; it is fatal when it leads to death of the victims or minor when victims sustain serious injuries whether physical or mental. The dividing line between fatal and minor is however thin. As it has been defined, accident would scarcely give warning although careless drivers should anticipate the consequences of their recklessness. In total, accidents do not just occur but they are majorly brought about by human carelessness, recklessness or negligence. Even when the immediate cause of a road accident is traced to mechanical factor, carelessness in the form of omission to check and maintain the vehicle at the right time would have scarcely contributed. Constant checking and maintenance of the vehicles could avert and imminent accident. Road accidents also occur as a result of one of the following factors: Human factors; Vehicle factors; Road and environmental factors according to AUSTROADS (1995). Driving faster or slower than the flow of traffic-which may or may not come with the posted speed limit-has majorly been demonstrated to increase the likelihood of crashes, as shown by the Solomon Curve (OOIDA,2003).The factors of traffic accidents are drivers, the highway and motor vehicles (Aaron 1999). Most traffic accidents often involve the three elements. Most road traffic accidents involve motor vehicles (Stutts and Hunter, 1999). A high proportion of road traffic accidents can be apportioned to bad roads and unsafe human acts. The drunken drivers of motor vehicles make the clearest example (Hijar et al., 2000).
1.2.STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
The rise in the road traffic accidents in Nigeria has overtime been a cause for major concern. A lot has been said about the age grade, gender, marital status and educational qualification of victims of road traffic study, this also has led us in undertaking this research work with a view to knowing if the bio data of drivers has an effect on how they drive which will ultimately rub off on the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.
1.3.AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The impact of bio data of drivers on the level of road accidents in Nigeria is centered on the following objectives:
- To know if the victims of road traffic accidents is gender related.
- To know if the victims of road traffic accidents is age related.
- To know if there is a relationship between marital status of victims and the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.
- To know if there is a relationship between educational qualification of victims and the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.
1.4.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of the study is to benefit both the research and readers, for it makes for a very interesting and educational reading, since the study will attempt to make everything in detail which will attract readers and researchers. The research hypotheses and date analysis will also enable organization to determine whether or not bio data of drivers has an impact on how they drive which in turn leads to the level of road traffic accidents.
1.5.SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is on the impact of bio data of drivers in relation to the level of road traffic accidents in Nigeria.
1.6.LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A study of this nature will normally entails investigation into a variety of issues to be able to achieve a comprehensive study of the problems, a lot of constraint would be encountered in form of collection of data, lack of adequate information and scarcity of researchers infrastructures. A principal limitation of this survey is the difficulty in getting accurate information on the bio data of victims of road traffic accidents.
1.7.DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Accident: an unpleasant event, especially in a vehicle, that happens unexpectedly and causes injury, death or damage.
- Traffic:the vehicles that are on a road at a particular time.
- Fatal: causing or ending in death.
- Malady:a serious problem or an illness.
- Vehicle:a thing that is used for transporting people or goods from one place to another.
1.8. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: there is no relationship between the age of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
H1: there is a relationship between the age of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
H0: there is no relationship between the gender of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
H1: there is a relationship between the gender of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
H0: there is no relationship between the educational qualification of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
H1: there is a relationship between the educational qualification of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
H0: there is no relationship between the marital status of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
H1: there is a relationship between the marital status of victims of road traffic accidents and the level of accidents in Nigeria.
Dinesh Mohan, “Road Safety in Less-Motorized Environments: Future Concerns,”International Journal of Epidemiology 31, No. 3 (2002): 527-32.
Christopher J.L. Murray and Alan D. Lopez, eds., The Global Burden of Disease: A Comprehensive Assessment of Mortality and Disability from Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors in 1990 and Projected in 2020 (Boston: Harvard School of Public Health, 1996).
One DALY is roughly equivalent to one healthy year of life lost. For more on the traffic-injury burden, see World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank, “World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention,” accessed online at www.who.int, on Feb. 6, 2006.
Elizabeth Kopits and Maureen Cropper, “Traffic Fatalities and Economic Growth,” The World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper No. 3035 (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2003).
Margie Peden, Kara McGee, and G. Sharma, The Injury Chartbook: A Graphical Overview of the Global Burden of Injuries (Geneva: WHO, 2002).
Babtie Ross Silcok, Guidelines for Estimating the Costs of Road Crashes in Developing Countries. (London: U.K. Department for International Development, 2003).
Margie Peden and Adnan A. Hyder, “Road Traffic Injuries are a Global Public Health Problem,” British Medical Journal 324, no. 7346 (2002): 1153.
One study in Kenya showed that 27 percent of commuters with no formal education traveled on foot, 55 percent used buses or minibuses, and only 8 percent used private cars. By contrast, 81 percent of people with secondary education traveled in private cars, 19 percent used buses, and none walked. See Vinand M. Nantulya and Michael R. Reich, “The Neglected Epidemic: Road Traffic Injuries in Developing Countries,” British Medical Journal 324, no. 7346 (2002): 1139-41.