effects of rural-urban migration on the rural development in nigeria :a case of umuahia north local government area

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EFFECTS OF RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION ON THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA :A CASE OF UMUAHIA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABSTRACT

This topic “Effects of Rural–Urban migration on the rural development in Umuahia North Local Government Area” has been considered as an avenue to know the rural development process in Nigeria and its insurance. This work will present the remote effects of rural – urban migration on rural development. This study has been able to cover new growth which has hitherto neglected by government.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE…………………………………………………i

APPROVAL PAGE……………………….………………….ii

DEDICATION……………………………………………….iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………iv

ABSTRACT…………………………………………………v

TABLE OF CONTENTS……………………………………vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION……………………………………..…..1-4

1.1     Background of the study…………………………………4-7

1.2     Statement of the problem…………………………………8

1.3     Objectives of the study……………………………………8-9

1.4     Research questions………………………………………..9

1.5     Statement of hypothesis…………………………………10

1.6     Significance of the study…………………………………10

1.7     Scope of the study………………………………………..10-11

1.8     Limitation of the study……………………………………11

1.9     Definition of terms………………………………………….11-12

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Introduction ……………………………………………..13-14

2.1     Literature review …………………………………………14-16

2.2     Migration………………………………………………….16-18

2.3     Causes of rural migration………………………………….18-19

2.4     Non-development theory of migration…………………….19

2.5     Development theory of migration………………………….20

2.6     Concept of development…………………………………….20-21

2.7     Functional relationship between urban and rural areas……21-22

2.8     Effects of rural migration……………………………………23

2.9     Strategies for rural development……………………………24-25

2.10Agricultural extension……………………………………….25-26

2.11Integrated rural development………………………………..27-29

2.12Why rural development……………………………………..29-30

2.13References

CHAPTER THREE

3.0  Introduction……………………………………………………32

3.1Research design and methodology……………………………32

3.2Research design………………………………………………..32

3.3     Sources/methods of data collection…………………………33

3.4     Population and sample size…………………………………33-34

3.5     Sampling techniques…………………………………………34-35

3.6     Validity and reliability of measuring instrument……………35-36

3.7        Methods of data analysis……………………………………36

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0  Presentation and analysis of data…………………………….37

4.1        Introduction…………………………………………………37

4.2        Presentation of data…………………………………………37

4.3        Analysis of data……………………………………………..37-56

4.4        Test of hypothesis…………………………………………..56-57

4.5        Interpretation of result………………………………………58

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0  Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation…………………59

5.1        Introduction………………………………………………….59-60

5.2        Summary of findings…………………………………………60-61

5.3        Conclusion…………………………………………………….61-62

5.4        Recommendation………………………………………………62-63

References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

Rural development is a process of planned change for which one approach or the other is adopted for improvement and transformation of the rural populace. It is a process of ensuring that the poorer section of the population has some share in the fruit of the economic activity. It is the means by which the provision of social services for the rural population is combined with the promotion of economic growth.

In order to bring about real development in the rural areas, there must exist active collaboration between government, non-governmental agencies, the private sector and the rural communities themselves. Only such collective attempts can improve the quality of life of those communities and significantly reduce the rate of rural–urban migration.

The problems of our urban centers cannot be solved unless those of the rural areas are first solved. Rural–urban migration is functional to rural development and also to the continual development of the urban areas and therefore needs to be stemmed. In order to do this, those facilities and opportunities that exist in the urban centres need to be available to the rural dwellers in the rural areas. Rural development as a concept and as a programme of action has therefore attracted so much attention and material resources that it has become enthroned as an article of faith in the development of many third countries with the conviction that rural development is the wonder formular for replacing rural poverty with rural prosperity in the third world, national government, development agencies and relevant international organizations across rural development in almost all the third world countries.

To many people, rural development simply means agricultural development, to some; it is primarily concerned with welfare. These views are myopic because rural development should include the political lives of the rural dwellers and should be relevant to the alleviation of all the conditions associated with the rural sector. It is true that economic box of the rural people is agriculture, but beyond food. They also need education, employment, decent housing, medical care, electricity, good roads and other means of communication.

The rural development task environment is an inter governmental, supra ministerial, organizational world which is important by a myriad of complex, large-scale, formal and informal organizations, public and private organizations.

Dallam (2003) therefore, conceptualizes rural development as involving four levels of functioning in organization.

–          A planned programme of action through national formulated policies

–          Self – help through community mobilization and participation

–          Technical assistance through a large pool integration of federal recruited professionals.

–          Integration of various specialists through a systematic approach to rural development. From this perspective, the motional planning process would start from the grass roots by ascertaining from the people, their needs and this will make maximum achievement of plan programmes. It will therefore relate projects to local resources base and eliminate the bare wagon effect by which communities proliferate the same projects over shorts distances without regard to their optimum utilization; rural-urban migration in Nigeria therefore is a steady flow of young school leavers from the rural areas to the urban areas. Reasons for this rural urban migration are to search for job opportunities that will improve one’s standard of living. Another reason is that people like living or residing in a suitable environment. The third point why people migrate from rural to urban areas is to escape from religions, political and social situation of knowledge and skill.

Almost all the universities and other institution of higher learning are located in urban cities. Those seeking for higher education therefore move to the urban areas in other to attend these institutions. Due to inadequate modern facilities in rural areas, life in rural areas is generally dull. There are no social amenities such as electricity, pipe born water, good and quality health centres. Also there are no social activities like luxury restaurants, hotels, social entertainment centers and good road networks etc. Many youths move to urban areas for the sole purpose of enjoying these facilities.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Umuahia north local government area was established shortly after independence formally in 1961-1964,the local government was under district council headed by District Officer (DO). Umuahia generally was under Bende district until 7th August 1976 when local government system came into being in Nigeria. By 1976, Ikwuano Umuahia became one separated local government with the headquarter in umuahia in 1991when umuahia was carved out from old Imo state when new state were created .Ikwuano now became a separated local government from the entire Umuahia. In 1996, they now divided Umuahia into two parts namely Umuahia north housing the capital territory and its environs.The headquarter of umuahia north is umuahia.Another one is the umuahia south which was also carved out from umuahia.

In Umuahia north local government of Abia state, there exist Eight (8) departments which include thus:

i.   Administration Department

ii.                              Environment Health Department

iii.                              Health Department

iv.                              Finance Department

v.                               Planning and Statistics Department

vi.                              Social development and Adult Education Department

vii.   Agric Department

viii.  Works Department

These eight departments that exist in Umuahia North local government area have their different Head of Department (HOD) that heads each department.

The first chairman that headed Umuahia North local government was Mr. Echeghika Akpunku Iheuwa under the governorship of Ike Nwosu. The previous executive chairman by name Royal High Chief Princewil Ikechukwu Ukaegbu left the seat on 21st January 2010 after completing his tenor. Presently, Umuahia North Local government has no executive chairman rather they have the Head of service (HOS) whose name is J.O.C Kalu.

J.O.C Kalu is the one heading Umuahia North Local government until another executive chairman is elected.

Umuahia North Local government area is made up of twenty (20) political wards and 48 Autonomous communities. The 20 twenty political wards include:

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