REFUSE DISPOSAL SYSTEM IN EDO STATE: A CASE STUDY OF COLBEN
The main objectives of this study were to find out the problem of refuse disposal in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area. This work also aimed at the possible solution in solving this ugly trend and also the use of public collection to enhance the problem of refuse deposal in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area . To achieve the laid down objective, the researcher carried out the investigation by designing a well structured questionnaires for 100 respondents for the area.
The data generated was interpreted using simple percentage statistical analysis. The study revealed that inadequate personnel and improper supervision is responsible for discriminate refuse disposal in the Local Government Area. Recommendations were further made by researcher based on findings.
TABLE OF CONTENT
- Background of the study
- Statement of problem
- Purpose of study
- Significance of the study
- Research questions
- Scope of study
- Definition of terms
2.1 Literature review
2.2 Classification of refuse
2.3 Types of refuse disposal
2.4 Aims of satisfactory disposal
2.5 Health problems associated with refuse
3.1 Research design and methodology
3.2 Population of t he study
3.3 Sample and sampling technique
3.4 Research instrument
3.5 Validity of research instrument
3.6 Reliability of research instrument
3.7 Administration of research instrument
3.8 Method of data analysis
4.1 Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data
- BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In Nigeria today, people have found it necessary in every where to keep their environment clean, to most major factor to be identified in commercial house, industrial or domestic homes is the tidiness of the environment with much emphasis to the disposal waste or refuse. Healthful living has much to do on the control of waste commonly referred to as refuse. The importance attached to the hygiene disposal of refuse in our village and home cannot be over emphasized. In 1984 then the federal military government enacted on edict which stipulated that the last Saturday of every month should be observed as an environmental sanitation day. The day is set aside by every home for cleaning the stores, homes and compounds (environment) sanitation day for every market in Edo State for cleaning the refuse or waste in the market.
This topic is therefore met to find out why refuse in Colben in Ovia NOrth East Local Government Area of Edo State in particular from be properly disposed off from the information gathered. From the health department in this area, there is a high incidence of microbial food poisoning, helminthes, skin dioceses gastro enteritis, typhoid and other disease caused by the sanitary environment. Though there are salary ways to dispose these wastes from Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area with the help of the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) and the environmental board of Egor Local Government there is still a clean indiscriminate dumping of refuse which generate such epidemic above. Refuse are heaped in often places containing all sorts of wastes. There, flies drift from, the refuse to homes, thereby causing some infectious disease, it is in the central places near homes that some dead domestic animals are thrown into the refuse there by creating an offensive odour aid therefore air is thereby polluted. Isu (2005) has noted that 87% of Nigeria use unsanitary is an important disease. Environmental sanitary is an important tell for the achievement of the world health organizations (WHO’S) target of health for all, by the year 2000 and beyond.
Since local government authority is responsible for the environmental sanitation of every town in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area, provision of personnel and materials resources such as hand glove, van etc should be made for easy refuse disposal. Every home should provide a dust bin with a lid to be used b y each household in the community.
According to UNESCO/UNICEF/WHO in their books known as “facts for life” illness can be prevented by buying household refused. They maintained that germs can be spread by flies, which breed in refuse dumps such as food scraps and leaching from fruits pit where household refuse is buried or burned everyday. Nigeria being one of the most popular countries in Africa is a classic example of a developing country in the world. The total population of Nigeria increase at the rate of 2% annually, the urban population was growing at the rate of 5.5. % per annum.
People against this background of high and uncontrolled rate of urbanization, our major cities like Lagos, Port-Harcourt, Ibadan and Benin, to mention a few have been confronted with environmental issues of far reaching implications. In our cities today, we have struck most forcible at out complacency regarding the planning and management of our urban environment. To further aggravate the unhealthy situation of these cities especially in Benin is the fact that injurious and corrupting elements are introduced into the environment this fouling it, as well as reducing satisfaction and utility entrained from growing and developing.
Refuse heaps are among prominent features of Edo State. In several quarters of the Colben in Ovia NOrth East Local Government Area , refuse heaps have encroached on or completely blocked roads thereby causing hold up and market. These refuse that are heap block gutters and other drainage channels thereby execrating flood disposal give rise to offensive odour and stench, which are i8nujurious to health (Okpala, 1998).
- STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Refuse collection and disposal in most community and villages in recent bines are not getting the required attention. As it has been a common case in our time, if this ugly situation is allowed to go unchecked, the health of the population will be in danger. At times the situation gets worse when domesticated animals such as sheep, goats, hen and dogs go around and into the refuse far and near into the containers in search of food ruminant and in the process scatter the refuse far and near around the dump site which may lead to spread of diseases especially to the owners of the domestics animals. Also, natural (factors such as rain, wind or slight breeze also disperse refuse materials from the over field receptacles or depots back to the cleaned environment and in most cases the dispersed refuse materials fall into the gutters and block the drains.
Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State thickly populated with traders are not left out in these societal problems of indiscriminate disposal of refuse. The local government authority that should be charge with the responsibility of educating members of the local government on proper ways of collecting and disposal of refuse are equally handicapped in respect of funds and manpower to handle the problem. More so, the resident of Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State like in most sections of Benin City have not been able to adopt the expected level of performance of environmental cleanness. Although some residents are within a walking distance of the refuse depot still prefer to dump their refuse into gutters and the sides of main roads.
It is quite clear that due to lack of funds, the effective cleaning of the refuse by the authority could not be done. According to Turner (1989) he mentioned that the failure to dispose satisfactory contributed to the pollution to air, water, soil and propagation of diseases and rectors “he further stated that our lives are been threatened by waste disposal pollution which undoubted pose enormous danger to the health of man”.
Improper disposal of refuse in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State constitute a great danger to the life of the people as fire out break could result from such un-wholesome behaviour. However, for the purpose of this project, refuse will be regarded as the non-gaseous, non-liquid discarded materials that results from household domestic activities. The problem of waste management become important in environmental studies because of its resultant effect mortality that is if refuse are not properly disposed, it could lead to an epidemic or serious health hazards as the heaps of refuse serve as hatching grounds to houseflies which are well known agents of gastro intestinal diseases. This study therefore aims at finding out why refuse in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State cannot be properly managed.
- PURPOSE OF STUDY
For the purpose of this study, the following objectives have been designed.
- To examine how poverty and illiteracy aggravate health problems in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
- To identify what make up of different types of refuse generated in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
- To examine the present system of refuse disposal by household and what factors militate against efficient waste management.
- To act as a reference for future study on the subject matter.
- To identify the major constrains hampering effective refuse dispose in the Local Government Area.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research book is intended to look into the problems currently facing the disposal of refuse in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State and possibly to give useful suggestions on ways or method to be adopted to ensure its efficiency. Emphasis will be laid on how best to improve on the current method of disposal in the village. This will be yardstick for formulating environmental sanitation plans with regards to refuse disposal policies and help in educating the public, and also to act as a guide to all those partly engaged in the collection and final disposal of refuse in the Local Government Area.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
- Is the non-availability of funds responsible for the local authorities’ inability to build incinerator?
- Are poverty and ignorance factors responsible for indiscriminate disposal of refuse at various quarters of the local government area?
- Are inadequate personnel and proper supervision responsible for indiscriminate refuse disposal in the local government area?
- SCOPE OF STUDY
This research work takes a careful study and examination of refuse disposal in Colben in Ovia North East Local Government Area, Edo State. More emphasis was laid on the hostels and school vicinity.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
Disposal of refuse: This is referred to the storage collection and disposal of refuse in any area of community.
Refuse: Refuse are various organic materials such as leaves, food remnants and inorganic objects carded objects such as junks etc. refuse can be classified under the following headings:
- Ashes: This is a result of combustion of wood for cooking and other purpose.
- Dead animals: These include the remains of dead animals such as dogs, cat, rats, goats, sheep, cow, etc they decompose easily and cause offensive odour,. They are usually disposed off by deep barging.
- Garbage: This includes all put refillable waste resulting from preparation and consumption of food. It include these remnants that are not eaten, such waste from the kitchen are vegetable, yam, peelings, unwanted parts of animals such as bone and intestines etc.
- Rubbish: This means all non justifiable inorganic waste and consisting of combustible and non combustible solid wastes e.g. paper, leather, carton, tin bottles, metal.
- Open Dumping: This is common and it is the commonest method of refuse disposal in the rural areas, where by rubbish is thrown in an open space. It is the oldest method of disposing refuse and it is always identified with numerous health hazard.
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