IMPACT OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON CHILDS RIGHT TO EDUCATION
Background of the study
‘Boko Haram’ is an extremist Nigerian Islamist militant sect that was formed in Maiduguri in 2002 by Ustaz Mohammed Yusuf. The sect seeks the imposition of a srict Sharia Islamic Law throughout Nigeria and as its name, Boko Haram (literally translated as “Western education is a sacrilege/sin) denotes, the group believes that Nigeria should relinquish Western-style education. The sect became militarily active around 2003 and since then has carried out a series of attacks against the Nigerian government, Christian targets, including targeted killing of worshipers and bombings of churches, and moderate Islamist groups. Since 2008, the Nigerian government has tracked down on Boko Haram activity, this culminated in a five-day uprising in July 2009 which left hundreds of people, including Mohammed Yusuf, dead.
However, despite heightened security efforts, the group has managed to continue with its attacks. Since its inception, Boko Haram’s primary areas of focus have been in the northern states of Yobe, Kano, Bauchi, Borno and Kaduna, although, recent trends suggest the sects activities are moving south wards, with attacks being recorded in the Plateau state and Abuja
The global paradigm shift from Industrial age to the Information age: Information Communication Technology (ICT) in facilitating Globalization among countries around the world was successful primarily, due to the role played by Research and Development which is brain child of Education. Education means imparting and acquiring knowledge through teaching and learning especially at school or similar institution (Encarta Dictionary) Education is a right, like the right to have food and security. Article 26 of the 1996 universal declaration of human right states that, “everyone has the right to education”. The Nigerian National Policy on Education (FGN, 2004) defined Basic Education as the type of education received at primary school level up to junior secondary school level. Therefore, Basic education is the first level of education for children at primary 1 level to basic 9 which is the junior secondary school level in Nigeria.
Education as tool for development suffered a great set back in Africa, due to violent conflict in form of Insurgency which consumed lives of innocent citizens and led to the destruction of properties worth billions of naira, and millions people displaced from their homes. Nigeria has recently experienced severe security challenges from the activity of Boko haram insurgents, which has negatively affected children’s Education in the north east region of Nigeria.
Borno State started experiencing the global trend of insurgency from 2009. This led to the gruesome killings of innocent Nigerian citizens perpetrated by an insurgent group called Boko Haram (Ovaga 2014). Since 2009, they have disrupts educational system in Borno State with huge negative effect on basic education. The insurgent group dislikes children attending schools, and also committed criminal offences ranging from kidnaping of school pupils and attacking teachers in schools (Adeyemi, 2014). Biu is one of the Local Government Areas in southern Borno which had early contact with formal Education in 1924 (Davies, 1954). Western Education came to mandaragirau in early 1960s from Biu through the Local Education Authority. Insurgency in Borno State started in 2002 by a group under the leadership of Muhammad Yusuf. The first offensive by the group which attracted public attention was in 2009, when they launch an attacked on Borno state police Headquarters in Maiduguri the Borno state capital, Nigeria.
Ugwumba and Odom (2014) observed that, Education is under attack, as incidents of violence increased against students, teachers, schools and Educational facilities in Nigeria, Africa and the worldwide at large. Amnesty International (2013) reported that, since the beginning of 2012, about 70 teachers and over 1000 school children have been killed or wounded. Joda and Abdulrasheed (2015) wrote on the effects of insurgency on girls Education, and their study reveal that, the insurgents attack villages, burnt infrastructural facilities, destroy schools, with frequent abduction and killing of both staff and students, they massively destroy all school activities in region, which led to the indefinite suspension of all academic activities in the affected zones in these countries. This source pointed out that, Bomb blast in school of Agriculture, Yobe State killing 60 students. Another Suicide bomber bombed government secondary school Potiskun, Yobe State killing 49 students and injured 69 students with 6 teachers. This source further argued that, Boko Haram members are against girls attending western Education which in most cases target schools and frequently kidnapped school girls in the zone.
Salisu, Mohd, and Abdullahi (2015) in their researched on the topic argued similarly that over 250 girls were abducted in Government Girls Secondary School Chibok. The United Nations Children’s Fund UNICEF (2015) in a report also wrote that more than two thousand (2000) schools are closed across Nigeria, Cameroun, Tchad and Niger Republic while hundreds of others have been attacked, looted, or burnt by Boko Haram insurgents. Abdulrasheed, Adaobi, and Uzoechina (2015) opined that many Basic schools in Borno State had experienced several attacks from the insurgent group, which led to the killing of pupils, students, staff and burning down of schools which consequently led to the closure of all schools in the state. Oladunjoye and Omemu (2013) argued that, Borno and Zamfara states have the highest numbers of out – of school children. They maintained that Zamfara State has an average of 28 out of every 120 children, in school. Borno state has 29 children out of every 120 children, in school. Education is in high demand in these zones where children out of school is alarming. This source reported that, on 12th March, 2012, gunmen linked to Boko Haram attacked Hausawa – Danmaliki primary school in kumboso local government area of Kano state, several pupils and teachers were killed. The Boko Haram insurgency has disrupts educational system in north eastern Nigeria with huge negative effect on children’s education. These attacks led to frequent abduction of school children especially girls who were later used by the insurgents as agents of sending bombs into crowd or any gathering they might came across.
Though, relationship between insurgents’ activity and school attendance in the north eastern Nigeria has been documented in the literature. For example Abdulrasheed (2015) study the effect of insurgency on Universal Basic Education in Biu and other local areas in Borno state. The finding revealed that, insurgency has negatively affected basic education in Borno State where many basic schools in the State were frequently attacked, with abduction of pupils and attacks on teachers. Consequently, this led to the indefinite closure of schools in Borno State.
Joda and Abdulrasheed (2015) documented the effects of insurgency on girls’education in north eastern Nigeria. The effect of insurgents on basic education in Mandaragirau District, Biu Local Government Area, Borno State, Nigeria has not been established. Therefore this research is aimed at examining the effects of insurgency on Basic Education facilities in Mandaragirau District, Biu L.G.A., Borno State, Nigeria.
1.2 statement of the problem
Jos-Civil Right Congress of Nigeria, CRCN, ahs advised the Federal Government to constitute a presidential contact committee to meet the members of the ‘Boko Haram’ sect as a way out of the current insurgent. The group in a statement on Sunday by its president, Mallam Shebu Sani, said the committee should be headed by “a respected and politically neutral elder statesmen”.
It identified 21 issues which it claimed gave rise to the ‘Boko Haram problem to include the extra-judicial killing of leader of the sect, Mohammed Usuf and the repressive acts against the members in 2009. Other reasons it said included “the inspiration from the success of the armed struggle in the Niger Delta, government’s policy on appeasing militancy, abject poverty and high rate of unemployment in the northern states as well as disconnect between elected and appointed leaders and people. The scene of the new attack is Maiduguri; Borno State.
The group also identified “exclusion of member of the ‘Boko Haram’ sect by mainstream Islamic groups, proliferation of arms in the north east, Chadian Civil War and illegal immigration, absence of data and intelligence about individuals and organizational links with foreign groups, lack of true federalism, resistance of the political establishment to a national conference, the collapse of public schools and Federal Governments increasing reliance on foreign security agencies”. The statement added “Massive economic aid and investment in particularly the north-eastern states, mainstreaming all religious sects and groups in boarder religious bodies. The sources are from Sokoto, kano and Abuja where we a bomb blast that killed many people’s. (Ibid, 2011).
1.3 Objectives of Study
To examine how insurgents affect the day to day operation of schools in mandaragirau area
To examine functional Basic Educational facility in Mandaragirau District before the activities of Boko Haram insurgents
To examine functional Basic Educational facility in Mandaragirau District during the reign of Boko Haram Insurgency
1.4 Research Questions
Does insurgents affect the day to day operation of schools in mandaragirau area?
Was there functional Basic Educational facility in Mandaragirau District before the activities of Boko Haram insurgents?
Was there functional Basic Educational facility in Mandaragirau District during the reign of Boko Haram Insurgency?
1.5 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be beneficial to the teachers, researchers, Ministry of Education, students, and educational policy makers. The findings would provide useful information to the teachers on the appropriate measures to take that will students meet teaching syllables thy miss as a result of insurgent activities in the study area.
This study would also be significant in the sense that its finding would serve as reference materials for future researchers to carry out further studies in the field of knowledge under study in other Local Government Areas or education zone in Adamawa State.
Finally, the outcomes of this research would to be of immense benefits to students of Faculty of Education and Educational policy makers because its revealed information on the effect of insurgent activities on students right to education.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study examine the impact of book haram insurgency on child’s right to education
1.7 Limitation of the Study
In every research work, it is likely that the researcher may encounter some limitations. The researcher encountered some challenges during the period of carrying out this research. Some of these challenges include the dearth of materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation. Again, how to get the true and required information from the students through questionnaire also constituted a constraint in the study.
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