Personality Prediction System Through Cv Analysis

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1.1  Background of the Study

In today’s competitive environment Human Resource Management has become an integral part of the organizations because the practice, ethics and policies are directly linked with the overall client personalities performance and attainment of the goals. The academic market place is increasingly global, where international mobility is a common feature of many academic careers (Kaulisch and Enders, 2010). Attracting qualified individuals to apply for employment vacancies is a goal that organizations strive for. Periodic worker shortages and low unemployment rates have made attracting qualified employers a concern for large organizations. Although  attracting qualified client personalities is an important first step, it is far from being the last stage of the recruitment process. Once employers are attracted to the organization, their interest must be held throughout the selection process, and finally, their attraction be maintained so they will accept a job application (Barber,2008).


To maintain the candidate‟s attraction throughout the recruitment process is perhaps the most important role by the recruiter. It is assumed that client personalitiess’ that are realistically portrayed will not be perceived by all employers as meeting their needs. Those who realize that their needs will not be met will presumably be withdrawn from the application process. In all likelihood, that same client personalities portrayal will appeal to other employers as meeting their needs and result in acceptance of a job application. Significantly so, the hiring process is less of a “sell” and more of a “match,” the goal being to reduce turnover by encouraging only suitable candidates as they advance through the selection process. RJP is a means by which employers, or recent hires, are exposed to the requirements of their new client personalities as opposed to the interview process, which is often used as a means of selling the position (Donnelley,2006).


The environmental and contextual changes present a number of competitive challenges to organizations which means that human resource functions have to be involved in helping build new capacities (Ulrich, 2006). One of these challenges is that firms have to ensure that they have the capacity to find, assimilate, compensate and retain human capital in the shape of talented


individuals they need in order to drive the organization. However, with economic liberalization opening up new career horizons for professionals in most industries, and thereby tremendously enhancing their prospects for mobility from one organization to another, turnover has come to be understood as a negative „spill over‟ effect of industrial growth (Templeret al., 2006).


1.1.1  Curriculum vitae

Many employers have turned to Curriculum vitaes as a means of improving the person-client personalities match and thus reducing turnover. An RJP is a means by which employers, or recent hires, are exposed to the requirements of their new client personalities as opposed to the interview process, which is often used as a means of selling the position (Donnelley, 2006). RJPs do not merely emphasize the positive aspects rather; they are intended to give the candidate a more balanced view of the client personalities. This includes exposure to characteristics of the client personalities that might be considered objectionable. It is reasonable to expect that candidates for any position have convinced themselves of its positive aspects. RJPs, by introducing some of the less desirable client personalities factors, reduce what may otherwise be unrealistic expectations. Employers who accept a client personalities after having been exposed to both its negative and positive characteristics may demonstrate a greater degree of commitment to success in their new position.


Curriculum vitaes involve the presentation of both favorable and unfavorable client personalities and related information to client personalities (Rynes, 2004). The presentation of positive and negative information can serve to allow client personalities match their needs with what they might encounter on the job. RJPs differ in the format, the timing, and the amount of negative information presented. Some RJPs are presented when the employer makes initial contact with the organization, others after the offer has been extended, and still others after employment begins. The amount of negative information presented can vary from medium to high (Wanous, 2009). RJPs work by giving employers an accurate description of the client personalities, such that employers starting out are less likely to leave the organization voluntarily. As a result, client personalities are given a small dose of organizational reality during the recruitment stage so that their initial expectation is lowered, consequently reducing turnover (Premack and Wanous, 2005).


In this case therefore, RJP methods provide the employer with a more holistic picture of the client personalities, thereby enabling the employer to make an informed decision regarding whether he or she really wants the client personalities and/or if he or she is suitable for the requirements of the position. As a result, the selection process is more efficient because people who will quit in the first few months (or are likely to be fired) are screened out, saving the agency or the employer the time and money required to refill the position. For the RJP to be successful, it must outline all aspects of the client personalities. This information will allow employers to determine if the client personalities is a good match for them so they can decide if they should go forward with applying for it (Rynes, 2004).

1.1.2  Employer Turnover

Employer turnover is the ratio of the number of workers that had to be replaced in a given time/ period to the average number of workers (Agnes, 2009). Employer turnover is a ratio comparison of the number of employers a company must replace in a given time period to the average number of total employers. A huge concern to most companies, employer turnover is a costly expense especially in lower paying job roles, for which the employer turnover rate is highest. Many factors play a role in the employer turnover rate of any company, and these can stem from both the employer and the employers. Recruitment process when not adequate client personalities information is not told to the potential employer is a key factor to employer turnover while others are wages, company benefits, employer attendance, and client personalities performance are all factors that play a significant role in employer turnover. Companies take a deep interest in their employer turnover rate because it is a costly part of doing business (Beam, 2009). The employer turnover rate is usually calculated by dividing the number of employers separated from the company they were working for by the base number of client personalities’ during the period.


Employer turnover can be extremely devastating for any company. It makes the employers difficult to maintain a steady and successful operation. Management should have their own rating on employer turnover and measurement of how this affects organizations performance. Losing a single key worker can decrease the likelihood of a project‟s success and can reduce investors‟ confidence in the firm (Grobleret al., 2006).High staff turnover in an organization is a major factor affecting workplace efficiency, productivity and cost structure. A low employer turnover isseenasanassetinthecompetitivebusinessenvironment.Itisthereforeimperativetokeepthe


level of employer turnover as low as possible. Labour turnover is a gradual process. According to Mobley (2007), an employer starts by an evaluation of an existing client personalities and the environment the work is being done. It is believed that work environment plays a pivotal role on an employee’s decision to continue working in an organization or to quit.

1.1.3  The Commercial Banks in Nigeria

Commercial banks are those institutions involved in accepting deposits and lending money to the public (Abdullah, 2010). Nigeria features a commercial banking system dominated by a number of commercial banks and a small number of non-bank financial institutions which concentrate mainly on mortgage finance, insurance and other related financial services. Over the years the sector has grown into a more complex scene of banking institutions of different types and ownership. There are forty three banks as categorized by Central Bank and members of the clearing house. Thirty-five of these banks, most of which are small to medium sized, are locally owned. The industry is majorly dominated by a few large banks which are foreign-owned, though some are partially locally owned. There are ten banks listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The banks came together under the Nigeria Bankers Association (KBA), which serves as the lobby for banks' interests and addresses the issues affecting member institutions (Nigeria Bankers Association Annual Report,2013).


Banks represent a significant and influential sector of business worldwide that plays a crucial role in the global economy. Commercial banks are financial intermediaries that serve as financial resource mobilization points in the global economy (Godana, 2012). They channel funds needed by business and household sectors from surplus spending to deficit spending units in the economy. A well developed efficient banking sector is an important prerequisite for saving and investment decisions needed for rapid economic growth. A well functioning banking sector provides a system by which a country's most profitable and efficient projects are systematically and continuously funded. The role of banks in an economy is paramount because they execute monetary policy and provide means for facilitating payment for goods and services in the domestic and international trade.

1.2  Research Problem

Weitz (1956) demonstrated that if organizations resisted the temptation to present themselves to prospective employers in an unrealistically positive light, it was not more difficult to attract new employers than if unrealistically positive information was presented. More importantly, the use of this more realistic information reduced voluntary turnover. Since Weitz's original research, similar effects of such information which Wanous (2007) termed Curriculum vitaes (RJPs) have been found in a variety of settings. A good elaboration of this is a case whereby a fast- paced client personalities with frequently changing conditions could be viewed desirable by some employers while other employers consider this an unattractive client personalities feature and this must be communicated to the candidate in the onset of the incumbent filling the said role. Such insight is also very important, if people around the candidate have limited information about the tasks and responsibilities of the client personalities as this could have been a good source of information for the candidate to ask. Employers may also know little about the client personalities for which they are applying for and/or have inaccurate expectations or perceptions. Consequently it is mandatory then to consistently, use standardized communication of both desirable and undesirable aspects of the client personalities to all candidates so as to protect merit system principles (Wanous, 2007).


The competition in the Nigerian banking sector has intensified recently resulting in a number of banks adopting various techniques in order to improve their performance. However, competition has shifted from innovation of new products to human resource which is the most vital asset for organizational development. It is the source that makes other source use and gets best return out of them. But getting best of human resource requires enormous moves by organization and their management. This new shift in the Nigerian banking industry can be attributed to the liberalization of the sector, increased adoption of information technology and improved business environment due to reforms being undertaken in the political, economic, social and cultural fields. With these changes, the level of competition in the banking industry has reached an all level high and coupled with an enlightened customers and increased scrutiny from the regulators, local banks have had to shift their attention to human resource as a strategy for competitive advantage and key to this is the recruitment under which Curriculum vitae is a component.

Recent studies done on the relationship between Curriculum vitae and employer turnover include Kimeu (2008) who researched on the relationship between Curriculum vitae and employer client personalities satisfaction among commercial banks in Nigeria and established that employers who receive RJPs will have more favorable attitudes toward their client personalities’ and will be more committed to their organizations, encourage self-selection in that employers are more likely to recognize whether their needs will be met by the organization before they enter the workforce lower the expectations of employers and help deter lofty employer expectations. Kasongwa (2010) investigated the factors that influence the perception of Curriculum vitae among management staff in large commercial banks in Nigeria and found out that the managers reactions to RJPs depended on the level of compensation offered for the client personalities, managers‟ familiarity with the client personalities and previous work experiences influenced their reactions to RJPs, number of alternative employment opportunities available for the employer and client personalities characteristics. Other studies done include Popovich and Wanous (2002) researched on the impact of RJPs on client personalities employers‟ and employers‟ career decisions and established that RJPs presented early would be more effective than RJPs presented later because, early in the recruitment process, the potential employer has not expended a lot of effort that might increase his or her commitment to taking the client personalities.(Breaugh, 1983) researched on the impact of RJPs on client personalities acceptance and established that the employers‟ opportunities for alternative employment. In order for the RJP to be effective, the employer must feel free to turn down client personalities that are perceived, based on the RJP, as not meeting his or her needs. The studies done above show that there is no known study which has been done on the relationship between Curriculum vitae and employer turnover and the study will therefore seek to determine what the human resource managers‟ perception of the Curriculum vitae and employer turnover among Nigerian commercial banks is.


1.3  Research Objective

To determine the perception of the human resource managers on the relationship between Curriculum vitae and employer turnover in Nigerian commercial banks.


1.4  Significance of the Study

This study will be valuable to the management of commercial banks as they will be able to understand the relevance of Curriculum vitae for the main reason being to help the banks in retaining its employers for a considerable period. Consequently exert greater effort on the client personalities by


the incumbent resulting in increased client personalities performance and better attendance. It‟s a study that will be useful to the management of commercial banks as they will understand the relationship between Curriculum vitae and employer turnover and hence ensure that the employers are informed everything regarding the client personalities they are to take. Further the study is important to all organizations in Nigeria especially the many who have not yet embraced RJP to try it so as to reduce employer turnover especially early employer turnovers. It is also a wakeup call to the human resource practitioners to optimize the use of RJP so as to cut on turnover and hence improve the recruitment process. Further, of it being a new concept, not many workforce are aware of it, thus it will be a means of not only educating the many human resource professionals about this crucial technique and apply it as required but also create awareness to all labour force so that in case the RJP is not used, they know what they are missing out.


The study will benefit the government especially the Ministry of Finance for making policy decisions whose overall objectives are to accelerate the rate of employer performance and reduce the turnover rate thus improving service delivery. The human resource specialists wishing to implement RJPs as part of their recruitment and staffing practices would also be able to maximize the gains attributable to RJP interventions by matching RJP methods to the organizational outcomes they seek to affect. The form and timing that will maximize positive outcomes such as client personalities performance and satisfaction and minimize outcomes such as turnover remain unknown. In addition, the human resource governing bodies such is IHRM (Institute of Human Resource Management) also will come to the realization of using it (RJP) and emphasize its use to the large human resourcefraternity.


The scholars will gain knowledge on the role of Curriculum vitae on employers. They will acquire an insight into the influence of Curriculum vitae on employers‟ turnover. They will also be able to use the findings of this study to prove various theories and to use the study as a basis for further research on other variables not included in this study. The findings will also increase the stock of theoretical and empirical knowledge especially in the African context and also form the basis for further research.


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