APPLICATION OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS IN TEACHING INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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APPLICATION OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS IN TEACHING INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IGBO – EZE NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABSTRACT

This study investigated effects of audio-visual aids on student‟s academic achievement   in Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Igbo – eze north local government area, enugu state. Three objectives, research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the researcher in the conduct of the research. The study adopted quasi-experimental design involved one hundred and sixty four (164) students for the study. Data for the study were collected during teaching- learning process which lasted for six weeks. The instruments used for data collection were teacher-made achievement tests conducted every two weeks both in treatment and control groups. Non participant observation technique was used to observe and record studen’s behavior during teaching-learning process. Structured interview technique was also employed to assess the level of cooperation of students in both treatment and control groups. The research hypotheses were analyzed using descriptive statistics (percentage, mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (Z-test and U-test). The major findings of the study indicated that comprehension of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids (Video show) was more effective than that of those taught using chalk and talk teaching process. It also showed that demonstration of students taught Integrated Science by using audio-visual aids (video Show) was high than that of using chalk and talk teaching process. It also indicated that cooperation of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids (video show) was more impressive than that of those taught using chalk and talk teaching process. Finally, the researcher recommended that the government should as a matter of urgency provide schools with these audio-visual materials. Further more, Integrated Science teachers should be sensitized on how to use the materials to ultimize academic achievement.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

     Background to the Study

The subject Integrated Science as a multidimensional discipline in the Nigerian school curriculum has got few text books on it with some marked specifications of teaching aids for illustrations. In some cases, directives and exercises for students as well as for teachers are not given, while in few cases such exercises and instructional guides are not given at all, this quite often than not lead to the learning of just some specified concept in an integrated curriculum. Many teachers hold the notion that Integrated Science is a simple subject that requires little if any, preparation. To them, teaching Integrated Science involves merely talking to students about a given topic as may be taken from text books or a more look at some pictures. (Talabi, 2004)

 

This is sometimes followed by some discussion and students may ask questions afterwards, about what they have learnt. They may draw pictures themselves of what has been discussed and that is all. Integrated Science teaching is more than this, that is why adequate teaching aids are needed in teaching the subject at any level of education. More over, the methods require in the teaching of Integrated Science such as inquiry, discussion, Role-playing simulation (both activity and historical) demand a lot of preparation on the part of teachers and students alike. In order to communicate effectively or elicit the desired responses, there is the need to employ different ways and means (audio-visual aids) which will appeal to most if not all the senses of the person receiving the message.

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The requirement needed by the teacher to make effective teaching is resourcefulness. Aguekobuo, (2004) is of the view that, way to do this is for the teacher to engage in human capacity building which will involve the use of variety of strategies and techniques in his/her teaching. For these reasons Integrated Science teachers need to be acquainted with all the audio-visual aids that will help optimally teaching and learning

process. It has also be observed that the use of verbalization method of teaching Integrated Science over the years has not made the subject very interesting. Agu and Hammad (2005), state that, the performance of students has been very low. In fact the need for effective teaching and learning of the subject cannot be over emphasized. Agu, and Hammad, (2005) further observed that, teachers still use mainly traditional method of teaching which lead to poor students` understanding and performance of the subject. Abolade(2009) posits that Integrated Science like other subjects, can be effectively taught by employing various Audio-visual aids that appeal to three senses sight, touch and hearing. Among the numerous possible factors affecting teaching and learning in our schools are the poor teaching strategies. Abolode, (2009) further stated that study have shown that out of the five (5) sense organs we use for acquiring knowledge, visual materials which are learning and instructional materials that can be seen only taken up to 80% in the learning process, while Audio materials and equipment that appeal to our sense of hearing takes 11% and olfactory, tactile and tasting takes 9%.

Therefore, it is stated that Audio-visual instructional materials have made qualitative and quantitative education more meaningful because they have produced desirable results. However, this subject does not seem to be receiving serious attention from all concerned, namely; students, teachers, sponsors of education and educational administrators/managers to mention but a few. These materials have value for instruction and present in different variants and qualities today. The uses of audio- visual materials have been discovered to facilitate effective communication transfer of information, knowledge skills, attitudes and other useful capabilities. Teachers should know that the resources for learning that instructor and students will use can influence the effectiveness of instructional programme. Audio visual materials could be said to be the various method, or devices used to disseminate information in the teaching and

learning process, which the Integrated Science teachers need to use to enhance the students better understanding of cultural, means of transportation system and conflict situations in Nigeria.

However, lack of adequate and appropriate audio-visual materials essentially for the effective teaching and learning of the subject is rather making parents, teachers and students to perceive the integrated Integrated Science in the school curriculum through out the country with confusion and perplexity. It is against this background that the researcher tends to investigate the effect of the using of audio-visual aids on studentsacademic performance in junior secondary school Integrated Science education in Jamaare and Katagum Local Government Areas.

     Statement of the Problem

As a result of advancement and development of modern technology varieties instructional materials can be used to make learning more vivid and effective. This means that students can perform better wherever they are taught with these instructional materials particularly audio-visual aids as their comprehension and demonstration and cooperation are expected to enhance tremendously in teaching-learning process. Unfortunately, most of the Integrated Science teachers neglect the use of audio-visual aids in teaching the subject. Probably, due to non availability of the materials or lack of techniques for using them.

It is a against this background that this study is aimed at finding out effect of the use of audio-visual aids on student‟s academic achievement in Integrated Science in junior secondary schools in Igbo – eze north local government area, enugu state.

     Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study have been formulated based on cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of learning objectives as follows:-

  1. Find out the extent to which comprehension of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching
  2. Find out the extent to which cooperation of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching
  • Find out the extent to which demonstrations of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids differs from those taught using chalk and talk teaching

     Research Questions

The following research questions were raised for this study, viz:-

 

  1. To what extent does comprehension of students taught social studies using audio-visual aids differ from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process?
  2. To what extent does cooperation of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids differ from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process?
  • To what extent does demonstrations of students taught social studies using audio-visual aids differ from those taught using chalk and talk teaching process?

     Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were proffered for this study, viz:-

 

  1. There is no significant difference between comprehension of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids and those taught using chalk and talk teaching
  2. There is no significant difference between cooperation of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids and those taught using chalk and talk teaching
  • There is no significant difference between demonstrations of students taught Integrated Science using audio-visual aids and those taught using chalk and talk teaching

     Significance of the Study

The study will invariably be of tremendous importance to students, teachers and researchers in Integrated Science accordingly. The work will enable student‟s to read and understand various audio-visual aids that facilitate teaching learning process, particularly video show. The Study will serve as reference to teachers who wish to find out the impact of audio-visual aids (video-show) on students academic achievement particularly in junior secondary schools. It will also highlight the appropriate materials of teaching Integrated Science which will bring about student‟s interest and active participation in the subject. The work will enable the teachers to understand that the success of any teaching- learning activities is determined by how much the students are able to learn or gain from teaching. This can be achieved through the use appropriate audio-visual aids. The study will serve as a reference to researchers who wish to embark on further research on effects of audio-visual aids on students‟ academic achievement. The work will also enable

researcher to understand the impact of comprehension, demonstration and co-operation in the use of audio-visual aids in teaching-learning process.

     Scope of the Study

The study examines effects of audio-visual aids on student‟s academic achievement in junior secondary schools in Igbo – eze north local government area, enugu state. Even though the study was restricted to two local government areas, namely Jama‟are and Katagum local government. Two junior secondary schools were selected for the study from each local government. More ever, the researcher employed video decoder (video show) as an audio-visual aid among others in teaching-learning process. This occurred to due to non availability of audio-visual aids in most of the schools as well as time, financial and human constraints. However, the findings would not be limited, but should be generalized to what obtained in most of the junior secondary schools in the state.

APPLICATION OF AUDIO VISUAL AIDS IN TEACHING INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN IGBO – EZE NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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