IMPACT OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOKOTO STATE

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IMPACT OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOKOTO STATE

Abstract

 

 

This study investigated the impact of social studies education on the achievement of national unity among Junior Secondary School Students in Sokoto State. A total of 380 respondents comprising of 190 male and 190 female students drawn from JSS 2 and JSS 3 classes from 14 selected public/private Junior Secondary Schools in Sokoto State, The instrument used for data collection in the study was a researcher designed questionnaire titled “Social studies and Unity Achievement among JSS Students Questionnaire” (SSUAQ). Frequency counts and Chi-square were the statistical tools used to analyzed the data collected from the field which was done through analyzing the three research questions and testing of three formulated null hypotheses. The result of the study revealed that the teaching of certain concept under social studies education such as culture and inter tribal marriage which are very vital aspect of the subject, do not help significantly in making students at the JSS level of schooling to see their knowledge of such concept as a means of promoting unity among them. However, the result equally revealed that teaching of concept of religion and religious tolerance in JSS had significantly helped in promoting unity among students who are from different religious belief, cultural background and ethnicity. It was recommended among other things that government at the state level should take every possible measure to ensure that competent and committed teachers of social studies education are made to handle the subject in all our Junior Secondary Schools, as well as making education free to all students irrespective of their religious or cultural affiliation. Equally, a renewed effort should be made by parents as families to leave in peace and love with their neighbors who are from different religious and cultural backgrounds.

 

IMPACT OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOKOTO STATE

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE II
DECLARATION III
CERTIFICATION IV
DEDICATION V
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT VI
ABSTRACTS VII
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII
LIST OF TABLES XI
ABBREVIATION XII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study 3
1.4 Research Questions 3
1.5 Research Hypotheses 4
1.6 Significance of the Study 4
1.7 Scope of the Study 5
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 The Philosophy of Social Studies Education 6
2.3 The Concept of Social Studies 7
2.4 The Objective of Social Studies Education in Nigeria 13
2.5 The Role of Social Studies in Various Aspects of Nation Building 14

viii

2.5.1 Social Studies as a Curriculum Design for Inculcating the Art of
Nation Building and National Integration amongst Students in
Nigerian Schools and Colleges 14
2.5.2 Role of Social Studies and its Special Responsibility Towards
National Integration and Development 17
2.5.3 The Role of Social Studies Teachers in Inculcating National
Integration Norms amongst Learners 19
2.5.4 Role of Social Studies in Inculcating Right Cultural Values 20
2.5.5 Some Problems Associated with the National Integrated Role of
Social Studies 21
2.6 The Concept of National Unity and Patriotism 23
2.6.1 The Importance of National Unity 23
2.6.2 Government Efforts towards National Unity 24
2.6.2.1 National Youth Service Corps 24
2.6.2.2 Creation of States 24
2.6.2.3 Establishment of Unity Schools 25
2.6.2.4 Integrative Political Parties 25
2.7 Factors Militating Against National Unity in Nigeria 25
2.8 Historical Development of Social Studies Education in Nigerian Post
Primary Institutions 27
2.9 General Objective and Relevance of Teaching Social Studies in Post
Primary School in Nigeria 30
2.10 Review of Related Empirical Studies 35
2.11 Summary of the Chapter 39

ix

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 40
3.2 Research Design 40
3.3 Population of the Study 40
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 42
3.5 Instrumentation 43
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument 44
3.5.2 Reliability of the Instrument 44
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 44
3.7 Statistical Analysis Procedure 45
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 46
4.2 Data Analysis 46
4.3 Discussion 51
4.4 Findings of the Study 56

CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary of Major Findings 58
5.2 Conclusions 58
5.3 Recommendations 59
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies 60
References 61
Appendices 66

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.8         Background to the Study

 

National unity occupies a prominent position in our quest to build united, strong and prosperous Nigeria. Social studies (as holistic approach to curriculum organization) makes it possible for vital issues such as national integration to be accommodated. A survey through the social studies curriculum from primary to tertiary level clearly indicated the commitment of the subject in installing attitudes and values necessary for national integration in Nigeria (NTI / STUP, 2007).

 

Social studies is a key subject in the curriculum of schools in Nigeria. Its introduction into schools in Nigeria dates back to the early 1960s. Like any other school subject, its acceptance by Nigerian educators and students alike has not been without some misunderstanding, part of which includes the believe that, its introduction as a school subject, would eventually displace history and the social science which have been properly entrenched in the curriculum of schools (NTI / STUP, 2007).

However, social studies is not geography. It is neither history nor government. It is not economics. Social studies is not an amalgamation of social sciences. Rather, social studies is an area of the curriculum designed specifically for the study of man and how man‟s problems are solved. It deals with how man can fit into the society by utilizing the necessary attitudes, values and skills. Social studies focuses on the use of critical and reflective thinking to solve the problems of man‟s survival in his social environment, to which peace and unity are critical catalysts (NTI / STUP, 2007).

Social studies at the junior secondary school level focuses attention in the area of critical thinking and reflective enquiry; for instance, a good citizen should be able to distinguish between fact and rumor or propaganda. Therefore,, since education in Nigeria is seen as a means through which the nation strives to make its teaming youths become good citizens, the effective teaching of social studies in junior secondary school in Nigeria will no doubt help in providing or enhancing unity among students of the lower level of secondary education, as well as preparing this category of school children for roles as active participants in their various communities.

It is against this background, that this study examined the impact of social studies education on the achievement of National Unity among junior secondary school students in Sokoto State.

 

1.9         Statement of the Problem

 

Nigeria is a diverse nation, politically, culturally, linguistically and religiously. Nigeria is made up of about Four Hundred (400) ethnic groups; three (3) types of religions and about One Hundred and Forty Million (140,000,000) people living together and interacting with one another (Nigeria 2006 census). Quite often misunderstandings do occur, resulting in ethnic clashes or religious disputes.

 

These social unrests are part of the indices that indicate the limit of the status of social studies education in our schools and colleges. This is based on the assumption that those youth who have engaged in violence and other social vices today have not been adequately taught vital concept of social studies education such as the concept of culture, religious tolerance, intertribal marriage etc. This situation has generated a lot of controversy and series of complains coming from a cross section of the larger society over the failure or inability of subjects thought in our schools to foster unity among school children. The problem of this study hinges on a determination of the extent to which the teaching of social studies curriculum has fostered national unity and national integration amongst JSS students in Sokoto state.

 

There is the need, therefore, for an urgent study to determine ways for emphasizing national unity and integration through school curriculum. This study, “titled Impact of social studies education on the achievement of national unity among JSS students in Sokoto state‟‟ is therefore posed to determine ways by which the much needed national unity will be achieved in our junior Secondary Schools through the teaching of social studies.

 

1.10      Objectives of the Study

 

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of social studies education on the achievement of national unity among learners at the junior secondary schools level of education in Nigeria. However, other specific objectives include:

 

  1. To find out whether the teaching of social studies inculcate Nigerian cultures and National Unity among JSS students in Sokoto State.

 

  1. To find out whether the teaching of social studies inculcate religious tolerance and national unity among JSS students in Sokoto state

 

  • To find out whether the teaching of social studies inculcate inter tribal marriage awareness and national unity among JSS students in Sokoto state.

 

 

To achieve the objectives stated above, the study addressed the following questions:

 

  1. To what extent does the teaching of social studies inculcate Nigerian cultures and National unity among JSS students in Sokoto state?

 

  1. Does the teaching of social studies inculcate religious tolerance and National unity among JSS students in Sokoto state?

 

  • Does the teaching of social studies inculcate inter-tribal marriage awareness and National unity among JSS students in Sokoto state?

 

1.12      Research Hypotheses

 

The following, hypotheses were formulated in a null form to guide the research questions;

 

  1. There is no significant difference between the opinion of JSS 2 and JSS 3 students that exposures to social studies curriculum enhances their understanding of Nigerian cultures as a basis for National Unity.

 

  1. There is no significant difference between the opinion of JSS 2 and JSS 3 that exposures to social studies curriculum enhances their religious tolerance as a basis for National Unity.

 

  • There is no significant difference between the opinion of JSS 2 and JSS 3 male and female students that exposures to social studies curriculum enhances the need for inter-tribal marriages as a basis for National Unity.

 

1.13      Significance of the Study

 

This study will be significant in the following ways;

 

  1. The findings of this study will help the government to identify ways by which the much needed national unity in Nigeria could be perfectly propagated among the youth. In other word, this study will indicate to the government, the potentialities of social studies to aid government policies to achieve national unity.

 

  1. The findings of this study will equally throw more light on the need for teaching social studies at all levels of education in Nigeria, (primary, secondary and tertiary levels) as an effective curricular tool for instilling the norms and tenets of good citizenship in the minds of learners.

 

  • The findings of this study could equally serve as impetus for further research work on the issues of the roles of social studies in Nigeria and the need for social studies in Nigerian schools.

 

1.14      Scope of the Study

 

This study is designed to highlight the impact of social studies education on the achievement of national unity among students of junior secondary schools in Sokoto state.

Sokoto state is made up of twenty-three (23) Local Government Areas. There are one hundred and thirty-five (135) public and private junior secondary schools in Sokoto state, with a total number of Fifty Seventy Thousand Eight Hundred and Thirty Three (57,833) males and females students (State Universal Basic Education Board Sokoto).

This study however, covered a total of fourteen (14) Junior Secondary Schools selected across the state. These fourteen schools represent 10% of the total number of JSS across the state.

The study will therefore be limited to all the students of JSS 2 and 3 level of schooling. As such, the respondents for the study are drowned from among the students of class 2 and 3 of the Junior Secondary Schools.

 

IMPACT OF SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION ON THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NATIONAL UNITY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN SOKOTO STATE

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