AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN INSTRUCTIONAL DELIVERY OF TECHNICAL DRAWING IN OGBA EGBEMA NDONI LOCAL GOVERNMENT MATERIAL
1.1 Background to the Study
As a new paradigm emerges, each paradigm shift has brought a set of all pervasive principles that becomes the new common sense basis for organizing every activity and for structuring any organization- be it government, business, entertainment or education. While developed countries are engaged in the shift from mass production to information technology paradigm, the economies of many less developed countries are pre industrial and based on agriculture (United Nations Education and Scientific Cultural Organization, 2011). Africa being a continent with lots of developing nations and large dependence on her human or natural resources (Marcellius, 2009), should wakeup to the fact that its human and natural resources are being eroded by the introduction of the new technologies. Nigeria as a nation therefore, needs to device new and profitable adjustment mechanism for integrating into the global system as was the case in the colonial period (Iheriohanma, 2011). The Economic Commission for Africa has also indicated that in a rapidly changing world, the ability to access and utilize information should not be seen as a luxury but a necessity for development (Adomi & Kpagban, 2010).
Having outlined its new economic strategies to become one of the world largest economies by the year 2020 as stated in the first national vision 20:2020 medium term implementation plan document (NV 20:20, 2009), Nigeria need not to lose sight of the importance of moving to the knowledge development and innovation stage in the future, and may start doing so in certain sectors of the economy (World bank, 2010). The field of education has been affected by Information and Communication Technologies which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning and research (Yusuf, 2005). Therefore, a better education system will also allow Nigerian youth to take advantage of economic opportunities and also become active players in their own economy and reduce the rate of unemployment in the country (World Bank, 2010).
Many nations of the world had transformed their education systems and training by ICT, therefore these reforms can also make instruction delivery in Nigerian secondary schools much more interesting and relevant to meet not only the needs of the society, but also the outside world as well (Ajelabi & Agbatogun, 2010). According to Adomi & Kpangban (2010), NEPAD e-School initiative stated that the typical African School Environment provides neither opportunity nor training in using ICTs and that seventy five percent of responding teachers had little or no experience or expertise in the utilization of ICT for instructional delivery. Furthermore, efforts have been made to ensure that ICTs are available in Nigerian secondary schools, the uptake is still low as most secondary schools (public and private schools) do not offer ICT training programmes. New instructional techniques that use ICTs provide a different modality of instruments such as allowing access to tools that adjust attention span and provide feedback for literacy enhancement.
In enhancing the prominent roles of ICT in advancing knowledge and skills necessary for effective functioning in the modern world, the Nigerian Government during the President Goodluck Jonathan administration- set up a committee to harmonize the different IT sectors policies which the Minister for Communications and Technology -Omobola Johnson- headed. The committee in the year 2012 came up with the document titled the National ICT policy (FGN, 2012). Despite the great work done by the committee, a critical review of the policy shows that there is need for an explicit ICT policy for Education to leapfrog from the information darkness that erodes the system and also achieve the vision 20:2020 objectives.
Learning societies constantly change, giving room for dynamics in its educational system. Having recognized the role self employment can play in the high rate of unemployment, Nigeria is making serious efforts to establish and systematically improve the teaching of technical and vocational education and training. Basic technology as a subject is very important for the scientific and technological advancement of any nation as its usefulness cuts across all fields of human endeavor (Onasanya, Fakomogbon, Shehu & Soetan, 2010). According to Fafunwa (1984) as cited in Uwaifo (2011), he stressed that the sole aim of the subject is to develop in children the aptitude for things that are technical and not necessarily making them technicians. The preceding statement gives room for students to decide either to go to technical colleges or complete the senior secondary school on completion of the upper basic education. Uwaifo (2011), further stated that recent development laid emphasis on the need for review of traditional approaches and instructional delivery method as the bulk of knowledge and skills that technical teachers in Nigeria impart are foreign to the traditional environment due to constant changes in the body of knowledge and developments in basic technology and societal
Sarason (2004) as cited by McConnel (2007), expresses his frustration about the ambiguity that surrounds the word learning for educators. He opined that reducing the measurement of learning to simply a change of behaviour severely limits both the teacher and the learners as it is a complex and multi-dimensional process which is often difficult to capture, access and communicate to stakeholders. Learning can be said to be the link between being in the world and knowing about the world. Knowing about the world affects how we exist in the world and likewise affects how we think about it, which all involves learning process (McConnel, 2007).
Therefore, the kind and quality of training and development opportunities and culture in which a teacher works will influence their promotion of lifelong learning values and their ability to help students to learn to succeed (LaBoskey, 2006). The concept of teaching in this context is addressed as a profession which deals with construction and organization of a personal pedagogy through interaction with classroom culture and the wider culture, and also acting as a mediator of an innovation.
Kwara State which is the location of this study - has an economy based on subsistence farming, small scale manufacturing and government driven economic activity- is among the six poorest states in Nigeria. When it comes to educational quality, Kwara is generally performing no better and no worse than the Nigerian average, but this still means that its students are not acquiring sufficient academic skills in School. Despite the fact that large majority of teachers in Kwara State are now qualified they do not have adequate knowledge among which low levels of numeracy and literacy skills, as well as inadequate knowledge in their chosen areas of subject specialization are common place (Gannicott, 2008). According to Teachers‟
Registration Council of Nigeria (2012), 43.74% are NCE holders, 45.49% have
Bachelor degrees, 10.706% with Masters degrees and Ph.D with 0.056% in Kwara
Based on the aforementioned points, the researcher was of the view that there was need to examine basic technology teachers‟ perception on the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology for teaching in secondary schools in Kwara State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Despite the strength of the rapid spread of technology around the world in recent time, there is a decline in the academic performance in basic technology in the country. This poor performance has been recorded for some years by the examining bodies of Junior Secondary Certificate Examination (JSCE), school promotion examinations and the qualifying examinations conducted by the State Ministry of Education. This poor performance has been ascribed to non-availability of ICT resources and teachers‟ lack of the necessary digital competence to utilize ICT in instruction delivery (Onasanya, Fakomogbon, Shehu & Soetan, 2010).
It has also been recorded in the past according to Akpan, Usoro & Akpan (2010), that pupils acquire skills in basic technology which makes them fit into the society properly and the reverse is now the case as students‟ on completion of the course cannot carry out simple daily maintenance on technological appliances. Several complains have been attributed to this among which is schools‟ lack of organization of workshops for teachers on the utilization of ICT in instructional delivery of content, teachers‟ enrolling for professional development programmes in which their employers gave no approval resulting to low input as expected and parents‟ little or no effort to support or address the utilization of ICTs in instructions during Parents‟ Teachers‟ Association (PTA) meeting.
Hence, the essence of the study was to examine basic technology teachers‟ perception on the availability and utilization of Information and Communication
Technology for teaching in secondary schools in Kwara State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study examined basic technology teachers‟ perception on the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology for teaching in junior secondary schools in Kwara State. Specifically, the study aimed to:
- Identify the available ICT resources for teaching basic technology in Kwara State junior secondary schools.
- Evaluate the level of competency of basic technology teachers of Kwara State in the utilization of ICTs for teaching.
- Determine the frequency of utilization of ICTs by Basic Technology teachers in Kwara State for teaching.
- Examine the perceived benefits of utilization of ICT for teaching by basic technology teachers in Kwara State.
- Examine the constraints militating against effective utilization of ICT for teaching by basic technology teachers in Kwara State.
- Determine the difference between public and private basic technology teachers in junior secondary schools of Kwara State in the utilization of ICTs for teaching.
- Determine the difference among basic technology teachers of the three communitiesof Kwara State junior secondary schools in the utilization of ICTs for teaching.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- What type of ICTs are available for teaching of basic technology in junior secondary schools in Kwara State?
- What level of competence do basic technology teachers of junior secondary schools in Kwara State possess in the utilization of ICT for teaching?
- How frequent do Basic Technology teachers in junior secondary schools of Kwara Sate utilize ICT for teaching? What are the perceived benefits of ICT utilization in teaching by basic technology teachers in junior secondary school of Kwara State?
- What are the constraints militating against effective utilization of ICT in teaching by basic technology teachers in Kwara State junior secondary schools?
- Is there any difference between public and private basic technology teachers in junior secondary schools of Kwara State in the utilization of ICTs for teaching?
- Does difference exist among basic technology teachers of the three communitiesof Kwara State junior secondary schools in the utilization of ICTs for teaching?
The following null hypotheses were drawn to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference between public and private basic technology teachers in junior secondary schools of Kwara State in the utilization of ICTs for instructional delivery.
- There is no significant difference among basic technology teachers of the three communitiesof Kwara State junior secondary schools in the utilization of ICTs for instructional delivery.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The research work was carried out in 45 public and private junior secondary schools in Kwara State. ICTs examined in the study were range of tools and techniques relating to computer based hardware (including computer system, laptops, printers, scanners and xeros machine), to generic tools (such as word processor, database, spreadsheet and presentation software), to communications (including TV, radio, e-mail, internet, networks (wired and wireless), mobile phones, fax) and personal-professional activities on ICT integration in instructional delivery by basic technology teachers in junior secondary schools in Kwara State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The research work will be significant and useful in teaching of basic technology. The findings will help basic technology teachers appreciate the value of ICT in instruction delivery and motivate them towards utilizing suitable ICT that will possibly reduce the failure in basic technology examinations. The curriculum developers will find it useful possibly when reviewing the basic technology curriculum thereby stressing the need for its development in order to leapfrog into the information age.
Furthermore, the study will be useful for researchers by forming a basis for further studies on ICT utilization in instructional delivery by basic technology teachers. Funding agencies of like interests, as well as professional bodies can support or formulate policies from recommendations made from the study.
Availability and utilization of information and Communication technology in instructional delivery of technical drawing in Ogba Egbema Ndoni local government material