A STUDY OF ADIPONECTIN, GHRELIN, OXIDATIVE STRESS BIOMARKERS, HELICOBACTER PYLORI TITRES AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AMONG OBESE SUBJECTS IN KADUNA STATE UNIVERSITY, NIGERIA
Obesity is a global epidemic which occurs as a result of energy imbalance. Biological, environmental, immunological, genetic and social factors also contribute to the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI) is the most common and widely used method used to evaluate weight status. Recently, hormones that are involved in energy homeostasis have been associated with obesity. These hormones include adiponectin, which is secreted by adipocytes, and ghrelin, secreted by cells in the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a bacteria which infects the gastric mucosa, is highly prevalent all over the world including Nigeria, is also implicated in obesity. The mechanism connecting H. pylori infection and obesity is controversial and unclear. This study investigated the relationships between the hormones, biochemical and haematological parameters, and also how the hormones were related with Helicobacter pylori infection in Nigeria. A total of 280, apparently, healthy men and women were grouped using body mass index (BMI) classes and serum levels of adiponectin and ghrelin were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Oxidative stress markers, lipid profile, some haematological parameters, as well as H. pylori-serological tests were also conducted. Data, presented as mean ± SEM, analysed by ANOVA and Chi-square. Pearson‘s and Spearmann‘s correlations were used to evaluate associations. The result showed a significant (P < 0.05) rise in adiponectin level in the overweight (1.6 ± 0.06 μg/L) group in male subjects, compared with the normal (1.4 ± 0.03 μg/L) group. In obese male subjects, adiponectin was not significantly different from the normal as well as the overweight males. Ghrelin level was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the overweight group (718.9 ± 94.40 ng/L) than in the normal (521.2 ± 11.48 ng/L) group in males. In both male and female subjects, adiponectin positively correlated with ghrelin (r = 0.442, P < 0.001and r = 0.470, P < 0.001); and negatively with H. pylori (r = – 0.507, P < 0.001 and r = -419, P < 0.001). Adiponectin also positively correlated (r = 0.198, P < 0.01) with catalase in males only. Ghrelin concentration was significantly (P < 0.05 higher in overweight males (718.9 ± 94.40 ng//L), but was not in the female subjects. Ghrelin positively correlated with catalase (r = 0.235, P < 0.01), superoxide dismutase (r = 0.189, P < 0.05), and age (r = 0.287, P < 0.001) in males; and positively with leucocytes (r = 0.206, P < 0.05) in females. Activity of catalase was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in obese (48.9 ± 3.19 U/mg) male subjects, while malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in overweight (197.2 ± 31.18 nmol/mg) female subjects. There were no significant changes in serum lipids in any of the BMI groupings in male and in female subjects. Also, none of the fractions of serum lipids correlated with adiponectin or ghrelin in both sexes. Packed cell volume and white blood cell count were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in obese male subjects; 46.1 ± 0.57% and 5.8 ± 0.21 x 103/ μL respectively. Overweight female subjects had significantly (P < 0.05) reduced neutrophils (37.0 ± 2.26%). In conclusion, overweight and obesity affect concentrations of adiponectin and ghrelin, antioxidant status and other physiological parameters and H. pylori colonization in a sex-dependent manner. In addition, adiponectin concentration was reduced in H. pylori-positive male and female subjects in the present study.