AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF KAEMPFEROL AND ZINC GLUCONATE ON HAEMATOLOGICAL, NEUROBEHAVIOURAL AND OXIDATIVE STRESS CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO NOISE STRESS

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AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF KAEMPFEROL AND ZINC GLUCONATE ON HAEMATOLOGICAL, NEUROBEHAVIOURAL AND OXIDATIVE STRESS CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO NOISE STRESS

 

Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate effects of kaempferol and zinc gluconate administration on haematological, neurobehavioural and oxidative stress changes in Wistar rats, exposed to noise stress. Thirty (30) rats were randomly divided into five groups: Groups I and II were administered with deionised water; Group III, kaempferol; Group IV, zinc gluconate; Group V, kaempferol + zinc gluconate for 36 days. Groups II, III, IV and V were subjected to noise stress of 100 dB dose for 15 days from day 22 to day 36. Behavioural activities were assessed on days 1, 8 and 15 after noise exposure. The effects of the different treatments on body weight change, open-field activities, neuromuscular coordination, motor strength, excitability scores, sensorimotor reflexes and learning and memory were assessed in the rats. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, total erythrocyte count, erythrocytic indices, platelet count neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, total and differential leucocyte counts and erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF) test were determined using standard methods. The brain was used to evaluate noise stress-induced lipoperoxidative changes, through determination of brain malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, using kits. The results of this study showed that noise stress-induced decrease in body weight gain was significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated in the group treated with kaempferol + zinc (123.70 ± 0.99 g, 133.70 ± 1.59 g) than in the group treated with deionised water + noise (117.70 ± 1.02 g, 125.70 ± 1.20 g). There was a significant and consistent decrease in the EOF of rats treated with kaempferol + zinc. Kaempferol + zinc gluconate significantly (P < 0.05) ameliorated decrease in haemoglobin concentration (from 12.62 ± 0.12 to 14.32 ± 0.11 g/dL), packed cell volume (from 37.85 ± 0.35 to 43.47 ± 0.30 %) and erythrocyte counts (from 6.43 ± 0.04 to 7.20 ± 0.06× 1012/L). Values of mean corpuscular haemoglobin (20.40 ± 0.33 ρg) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (33.20 ± 0.15%) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in kaempferol + zinc treated rat compared to the deionized water + noise treated group (18.43 ± 0.34) and (29.65 ± 0.89) respectively. Rats treated with zinc had the highest mean corpuscular volume (61.35 ± 0.67 fL) compared to the deionized water + noise treated group (58.87 ± 0.29). Platelet counts were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in rats treated with kaempferol + zinc (609.20 ± 6.90 x 106 g/dL) compared to the group treated with noise + deionised water (439.80 ± 7.91 x 106 g/dL). Administration of kaempferol + zinc caused leucocytosis due to neutrophilia and lymphocytosis as well as a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in N:L ratio (0.25 ± 0.01) than in the group treated with deionised water + noise (0.35 ± 0.03). Combination kaempferol + zinc significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced learning (from 2.33 ± 0.33 s to 1.17 ± 0.17) and memory (from 92.17 ± 4.08 s to 106.80 ± 2.14 s). Kaempferol + zinc significantly (P < 0.05) mitigated noise stress induced impairment in neuromuscular coordination neuromuscular coordination (from 45.0 ± 1.43o to 65.06 ± 1.23o), motor strength (from 51.68 ±229 s 78.33 ± 5.69 s), sensory motor reflex (from 2.88 ± 0.16 to 4.83 ± 0.17), and motor coordination on days 1, 8 and 15 (from 10.83 ± 1.40 cm, 11.5 ± 1.18 cm, 10.50 ± 0.923 cm to 5.33 ± 1.45 cm, 4.33 ± 1.41 cm and 4.83 ± 1.35 cm) respectively. Kaempferol + zinc exerted anxiolytic effects, demonstrated in treated rats subjected to open-field test. In addition, combined treatment significantly (P < 0.05) decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (from 1.10 ± 0.20 nmol/mg to 0.70 ± 0.20 nmol/mg) and enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (from 32.50 ± 2.20 IU/L to 36.90 ± 2.00 IU/L), glutathione peroxidase (from 25.10 ± 1.10 IU/L to 29.40 ± 1.20 IU/L) and superoxide dismutase (from 1.80 ± 0.20 IU/L to 2.20 ± 0.30 IU/L). In conclusion, treatment with kaempferol and zinc singly and in combination ameliorated noise-induced haematological, neurobehavioural and oxidative stress changes in Wistar rats.

 

AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF KAEMPFEROL AND ZINC GLUCONATE ON HAEMATOLOGICAL, NEUROBEHAVIOURAL AND OXIDATIVE STRESS CHANGES IN WISTAR RATS EXPOSED TO NOISE STRESS

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