DIVERSITY OF YEASTS AND COLIFORMS ASSOCIATED WITH BOVINE SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN PERIURBAN DAIRY FARMS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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DIVERSITY OF YEASTS AND COLIFORMS ASSOCIATED WITH BOVINE SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN PERIURBAN DAIRY FARMS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

 

Abstract

 

This study aimed to examine the diversity of yeasts and coliforms associated with bovine subclinical mastitis in peri urban dairy farms in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria, including the use of molecular techniques. A cross-sectional study was conducted on twenty-six dairy farms drawn from four local government areas in the state. A total of 300 composite milk samples were collected from 300 cows-in-milking and examined. The result show that: 37 (12.3%) fungal isolates were identified using the API 20C AUX as; (9) Candida albicans, (4) Candida famata, (4) Candida krusei, (1) Candida boidinii, (1) Candida pelliculosa,(1) Candida lusitaniae,(5) Trichosporon mucoides, (1)Cryptococcus humicola, (1) Cryptococcus laurentii, (1) Cryptococcus albidus, (2) Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (2) Stephanoascus ciferrii, (2) Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, (1) Kloeckera spp., (1) Kodamaea ohmeri and (1) Geotrichum capitatum.All C. albicans had the ability to survive high temperature, produced germ tubes in human serum and formed chlamydospores in corn meal-tween 80 Agar. In-vitro sensitivity test using five antimycotic agents showed that 85% of the isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B, followed by griseofulvin, nystatin, voriconazole and fluconazole in decreasing order. Nested PCR of the D1 / D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene of 11 yeast isolates showed they all had a distinct band- 600bp. DNA sequencing and GenBank BLASTN of the eleven genes identified them as: (3) Candida albicans,(1) Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (7) Pichia Kudriavzevii(Candida krusei). The D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences were 93-100% identical for yeast isolates within the same species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on the D1/D2 26S rRNA gene sequences grouped them into 3 clusters and showed heterogeneity in C. albicans. A 10.3% prevalence was recorded for coliform organisms using the Microgen GN-ID A+B Kit (Medica-TecTM), these were; (1) Enterobacter cloacae, (1) Enterobacter aerogenes, (2)Enterobacter gergoviae, (2)Citrobacterfreundii, (1) Citrobacter koseri, (11) Klebsiellapneumoniae, (5) Klebsiella vii oxytoca, (4)Serratia marcescens, (3) Proteus mirabilis and (1) Pantoea agglomerans.In-vitro sensitivity test using seven commonly available antibiotics showed that all the isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin followedby ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, tetracycline and erythromycin in decreasing order. Eighty-nine (29.7%) cow milk samples were CMT positive of these: 13(4.3%) were contaminated with yeasts only, 7(2.3%) contaminated with only coliforms while, 24(8%) were contaminated with both yeasts and coliforms. Age, parity number, stage of lactation, management system, milking hygiene and presence of lesion on udder/teat were found to be significantly associated (p<0.05) with the prevalence of mastitis in cows. The lowest prevalence (24%; 48 of 200) was recorded in cows within 3–4 years of age while, the highest (60.6%; 20 of 33) was in cows aged above 5 years. Stage of lactation was significant with the prevalence of mastitis being the highest (45.5%; 30 of 66) during the initial stage of lactation (0 to 5 month). It was concluded that, the relatively high prevalence of yeasts and coliforms in bovine subclinical mastitis in dairy herds could significantly reduce milk production and cause economic losses. The milk samples contained diverse yeast species including isolates of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans and this raises the possibility of milk and dairy products being vehicles for transmission of pathogenic yeasts. It is therefore recommended that the farmers practice good milking hygiene, milk clinically infected cows last, cull chronic mastitis cases, treat clinically infected cows and administer dry period therapy to their cows. As this will go a long way to reduce the prevalence of yeasts and coliforms in subclinical mastitis in peri urban dairy farms in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

 

DIVERSITY OF YEASTS AND COLIFORMS ASSOCIATED WITH BOVINE SUBCLINICAL MASTITIS IN PERIURBAN DAIRY FARMS IN KADUNA METROPOLIS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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