IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTICOCCIDIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS OF KHAYA SENEGALENSIS (DESR. A. JUSS.) AGAINST EIMERIA TENELLA IN BROILER CHICKENS

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IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTICOCCIDIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS OF KHAYA SENEGALENSIS (DESR. A. JUSS.) AGAINST EIMERIA TENELLA IN BROILER CHICKENS

 

Abstract

 

A study to determine the in vitro and in vivo anticoccidial activities of Khaya senegalensis leaf extracts on Eimeria tenella infection in broilers was conducted. A preliminary investigation was carried out using three plants namely; Khaya senegalensis, Guiera senegalensis and Tamarindus indica to select the one with the most anticoccidial activity. The leaves were extracted by maceration method for 72 hours using 70% methanol and the partial purification of the dried crude methanol extracts done. The separated portions of the extracts were then evaluated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). The chromatography result showed that Khaya senegalensis has phenols and flavonoids. The n-butanol fractions were tested for in vitro anticoccidial activities on the sporulation time of the Eimeria tenella oocysts. Khaya senegalensis n-butanol fraction had the most anticoccidial activity in which there was total sporulation inhibition (100%) while Guiera senegalensis had the least anti coccidial activity with 49% sporulation inhibition. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was determined using graded doses of the n-butanol extracts of Khaya senegalensis at 11 mg/kg, 33 mg/kg, 99 mg/kg, 297 mg/kg and 891 mg/kg administered orally to 4 weeks old birds at the same period which were divided into groups A- E respectively while group F birds were given 0.2 ml/bird of distilled water as control. The high survival rate of 100% in the five treated groups of the maximum tolerated dose experiment indicated the high safety margin of Khaya senegalensis even at a dose of 891mg/kg. The progressive weight increase in both the treated (11mg/kg) and un treated group shows the ability of the extract to improve weight gain. The histopathological lesions had some degree of nephro-toxicity seen. A chronic toxicity study was also conducted using the n-butanol portion of the extracts of Khaya senegalensis. Two groups of 7 birds each (1 and 2) of 4 weeks of age broilers were used with group 1 chickens orally dosed with 500 mg/kg of the n-butanol fraction of the extract daily for viii two weeks. Group 2 served as the control group and each bird was given distilled water at 0.2ml. The gross lesions showed that 500 mg/kg given over a two weeks period had effects on the internal organs of the birds as revealed by the hypertrophied, congested kidneys. Evaluation of the modulatory effect of the n-butanol fraction of the crude methanol extracts of Khaya senegalensis against E tenella in broilers was carried out using one hundred and twenty, 4 week-old birds which were obtained from the National Animal Production and Research Institute (NAPRI), Shika, Zaria. The higher mean oocyts count in the infected untreated group (48%) than the treated group two weeks post infection indicated that the extract had some inhibitory effects on oocyst count. Among the extract treated birds, the high oocyst count by the 11 mg/kg group (17%) suggests the dose was not adequate to prevent oocyst production while the 99 mg/kg had lower oocyst counts (12%) which was comparable to the group treated with normal dose of Amprolium (10%) and thus was the effective dose 2 weeks post treatment. Also the phenols at a dose of 99mg/kg used to treat the infected birds three weeks post treatment, reduced oocysts count by 2%. The presence of schizonts and merozoites in caecal scrappings showed that reproductive activities of the parasites were not completely halted even after treatment. It also shows that the endogenous stages were not susceptible to the extracts at all doses although the population in the treated infected groups were lower than those seen in the infected un treated group. The survival percentage was higher in the treated groups compared to the infected un treated group (55%). Among the treated groups, the survival rate was numerically higher in the 33 mg/kg (85%) treated group while the least was in the group treated with 99 mg/kg (70%). The infected groups had slightly lower Packed Cell volume (PCV) even after treatment with the extracts than the uninfected or Amprolium treated group. In this experiment the lowest PCV was 24.66% at the third week post infection in the 33mg/kg treated group. The histopathological ix lesions observed included very severe lesions including severe villous atrophy and fusion of the villi. In conclusion, the in vitro and in vivo modesl were found to be useful tools for rapid screening of anticoccidial activity of the plant preparations against Eimeria tenella parasites. It is recommended that recommended that extract of Khaya senegalensis can be given at a dose of 11 mg/kg as a natural growth promoter. Also anticoccidial in vitro activity of K senegalensis as it relates to in vivo anticoccidial activity is an interesting area for more research. Detailed studies are needed to isolate, characterize and evaluate the active components and the mechanism of action of the identified active principles in Khaya senegalensis leaves as well as other parts of the plant.

 

IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTICOCCIDIAL ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS OF KHAYA SENEGALENSIS (DESR. A. JUSS.) AGAINST EIMERIA TENELLA IN BROILER CHICKENS

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