PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

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PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

 

Abstract:

A cross sectional study and random sampling was carried out in six selected Local Government Areas of Kogi State in order to determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in the state. In all, 410 blood samples were collected and examined for presence of trypanosomosis using Geimsa stained, thick blood and thin blood smears, for the detection and identification of the trypanosome parasite. PCV and differential leucocyte count were also determined. Of the 410 blood samples obtained, 116 and 294 were obtained from herds and abattoirs respectively. Among these, 232 cattle were < 3years and 162 cattle were 3 years and above, 212 female and 198 male cattle were sampled respectively. Also, 71 cattle with body condition 2 (poor), 245 cattle with body condition 3 (fair) and 94 cattle with body condition 4 (good) respectively were sampled. The clinical signs observed during the sampling were fever, lethargy, lacrymation, pale mucus membrane, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, loss of appetite, epiphora and emaciation. The mean body temperature for the parasitaemic cattle were 42.5 0.50 ºC and 38.2 0.15 ºC for aparasitaemic cattle. Of the 16 cattle sampled 3.9% were positive for trypanosome parasite using the thick blood smear technique, while 2.9% (12) were positive using thin smear technique. The overall prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Kogi State was 3.9%. The mean Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of the parasitaemic cattle (30.18 1.73%) was lower than that of aparasitaemic cattle (40.48 0.44%), a difference which was significant statiscally (P <0.05). The mean haemoglobin concentration of parasitaemic cattle (10.06 0.43g/μl) was lower than that of aparasitaemic cattle (13.61 0.014g/μl), while the mean eosinophil count of parasitaemic cattle (0.39 1.10(109/l)) was higher than that of aparasitaemic cattle (0.17 0.26(109/l)). All the differences were statistically significant (P <0.05). The species of trypanosomes identified were T. brucei 10 (2.4%), while 2 (0.5%) had mixed infection of T. Comment [MP1]: brucei and T. congolense and the species could not be identified in 4 (0.98%) of the parasitaemic cattle. The infection rate based on herd samples and abattoir samples were 10 (8.6%) and 6 (2%) of cattle using thick blood smear while 10 (8.6%) and 2 (0.7%) of cattle using thin blood smear technique and the differences were significant (P <0.05). With regard to infection rate based on sex, 4.2% (9) and 3.5% (7) females and males cattle were positive (parasitaemic) via thick blood smear technique respectively while 3.3% (7) and 2.5% (5) were parasitaemic using thin blood smear technique respectively, though the differences were not significant (P >0.05). Based on age, prevalence was highest among the young cattle (< 3years) (4.1%) than adult cattle (3.6%), though not statiscally significant (P >0.05). Emaciated cattle had a high prevalence rate of trypanosomosis (3.7%) than the non-emaciated cattle, which was not significant (P >0.05). There was no significant differences in relation to age, sex, body condition and trypanosomosis in the study area. The finding therefore requires an urgent approach to parasite and vector control to safeguard the cattle population in Kogi State. It is recommended that further study should be carried out to identify other species of trypanosomes present in the Kogi State, and also to employ other sensitive methods like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine the true picture of trypanosomosis in Kogi State. There is also the need to enlighten cattle owners and herdsmen in the state about the effect of trypanosomosis and its economic implications to their cattle.

 

PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN SELECTED LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS OF KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

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