EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE AND HUMAN PATIENTS IN BORNO AND YOBE STATES, NIGERIA

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EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE AND HUMAN PATIENTS IN BORNO AND YOBE STATES, NIGERIA

 

Abstract

 

Bovine tuberculosis has been on increasing concern and a threat to public health, especially in developing countries like Nigeria. This study was conducted in Borno and Yobe States, located in North Eastern Nigeria to study the epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and human TB patients. Six diagnostic procedures namely, tuberculin testing, post-mortem inspection for TB-like lesions, culture, acid-fast staining, TB Ag MPT64 (SD-bioline) and genotype MTBC were used. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis based on tuberculin test survey involving 109 cattle herds from 10 Zonal Veterinary Areas (testing areas) in the study area was described. A total of 6, 293 cattle were tested out of which 645 were positive with a prevalence of 10.3%. Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis based on gross TB-like lesions was determined. A total of 4,130 slaughtered cattle were examined and out of which 379 were compatible with gross TB-like lesions with a prevalence of 9.2%. This finding indicates that there is a relationship between the prevalence of bovine TB among slaughtered cattle and among live cattle using the tuberculin test. The results of the risk factors related to cattle handlers‟ awareness/knowledge of bovine TB indicated that males had higher percentage (87.3%) compared to females (48.3%), respondents above 40 years had higher percentage (82.9%) compared to those less than 40 years (78.4%). Level of formal education; tertiary level of education were more informed about bovine TB (96.6%) followed by those with secondary, primary and no formal education respectively (94.1%, 88.7% and 46.3%). Occupation; meat inspectors (100%) and butchers (98.1%) were more informed than cattle rearers, cattle marketers and milk sellers with 71.6%, 70.8% and 29.4% respectively. The results of the risk factors related to cattle handlers on the habit of drinking raw milk indicated that females had higher percentage (80.2%) compared to males (37.8%).Based on age; respondents that were above 40 years had higher percentage (52.9%) compared to those that were less than 40 years (41.8%). Level of formal education; it was found that those who had no formal education had higher percentage (61.8%) followed by those with primary, secondary and tertiary with 55.1%, 54.8% and 22.4% respectively. Occupation of the respondents; It was higher among cattle rearers (80.2%) followed by milk sellers, cattle marketers, meat inspectors and butchers with 69.6%, 40.2%, 12.7% and 10.9%, respectively. Isolation and identification of tubercle bacilli from human sputa based on culture, acid- fast staining and TB Ag MPT64 (SD-bioline) procedures revealed 94(24.0%), 67(71.3%) and 62 (66.0%) isolates respectively. Out of the 67 isolates tested by Genotype MTBC molecular assay, 15(23.8%) were identified as M. bovis, 6(9.5%) were identified as M. africanum and 42(66.7%) were identified as M. tuberculosis. However, it is worth noting that four M. bovis isolates were traced to human while the remaining 11 were traced to cattle. One M. africanum isolate was traced to cattle while the remaining 5 were traced to human. Two M. tuberculosis isolates were traced to cattle while the remaining 40 were traced to human; thus indicating human-to-animal and animal-to-human transmissions. The study highlighted the importance of tuberculosis in cattle and humans and its public health implications and calls for prompt action towards controlling the disease in the two States and Nigeria in general.

 

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CATTLE AND HUMAN PATIENTS IN BORNO AND YOBE STATES, NIGERIA

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