INFLUENCE OF JOB SATISFACTION ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL BUSINESS EDUCATION TEACHERS IN OSUN AND OYO STATES, NIGERIA

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INFLUENCE OF JOB SATISFACTION ON JOB PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL BUSINESS EDUCATION TEACHERS IN OSUN AND OYO STATES, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study was carried out on the Influence of job satisfaction on job performance of secondary school business education teachers in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria. Seven objectives, Seven research questions were raised to guide the study, while Seven null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. In order to achieve the purpose for the study, descriptive survey research design was adopted. The total population of the study was two thousand three hundred and twenty four business education teachers, and the sample of four hundred and sixty five respondents were drawn from the twelve zones where the schools were located using random sampling techniques. Data were collected using self-designed questionnaire. Descriptive Statistics of mean and standard deviation were used to analyze research questions while Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to test all the null hypotheses at the significant level of 0.05. The findings among others revealed that the teachers were dissatisfied with the working relationship with employer, also salary and fringe benefits had significant influence on job performance of secondary school business education teachers in Osun and Oyo states. The researcher recommended among others, that Osun and Oyo state governments should ensure the payment of salary and fringe benefits of secondary schools business education teachers in the states without any problem.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Osun and Oyo states are part of the thirty six (36) states that made up Nigeria. Osun state has thirty (30) local governments with five hundred and eighty (580) public secondary schools and one thousand nine hundred and twenty seven (1,927) business education teachers. Oyo state has thirty-three (33) local governments with nine hundred and forty nine (949) public secondary schools and three hundred and ninety seven business education teachers. Osun and Oyo states are located in south-west part of Nigeria.

Job satisfaction describes how happy an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are with their jobs, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction can be considered as one of the deciding factors when it comes to effectiveness and efficiency of workers. The logic is that a satisfied employee makes a happy employer, and a happy employee is a successful employee. In line with this, Statt (2004) defines job satisfaction as the extent to which a worker is contented with the rewards he or she gets out of his or her job, particularly in terms of intrinsic motivation. According to Armstrong (2006) job satisfaction refers to the attitude and feelings people have about their work. Positive and favourable attitude towards a job indicate job satisfaction, negative and unfavourable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction.

Job satisfaction is generally seen as the effective orientation of individuals towards work roles that they are currently occupying in other word a person could be said to be satisfied to the extent that his job fulfils his dominant needs and is consistent with his expectations and values. Job satisfaction can also be seen as a

worker’s sense of achievement and success on the job. Kaliski (2007) ascribes to this, stressing that job satisfaction is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal well- being. By implication Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys doing well and being rewarded for one’s efforts. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness with one’s work.

 

On the other hand job involves the interaction between an individual and his work environment. The working environment sets basic requirements for the individual, just these requirements can bring about satisfaction or dissatisfaction for him.

Job performance is the way employees perform their work. It is an individual output in terms of quality and quantity expected from every employee in a particular job. In line with this Abdullahi (2011) job performance is the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of teachers as regard to discharging their responsibilities in the teaching learning situation. Business education teachers are teachers who teach subjects such as business studies, commerce, shorthand and typing, marketing and accounting in secondary schools. Samaila (2004) defined a professional teacher (business educator) as one who knows his/her subject matter very well practically and theoretically. He should be knowledgeable and strong not only in his avowed individual subject area, but also in the teaching and learning process.

The public esteem of teachers of all categories is very low and this attitude has greatly influenced the manner teachers go about their work, which consequently has a devastating effect on each student. This also results in the employment of young teachers who see teaching as a stepping stone to other more creative, satisfying and respectable jobs. Salawu in Fadokun (2004) supported this claim by stating that throughout history, teaching as a profession, is expected to occupy a high degree of

importance. That is why the desire to find effective and qualified teachers has persisted. According to Umego (1992) teaching should be made attractive so as to relate its status to what obtains in other professions that enjoy high level of importance.

 

However, teachers are key facilitators of knowledge and play a vital role in nation building. In order to make teachers comfortable and satisfied with their jobs, factors such as teaching resources, working conditions, salary, professional recognition, promotion, working environment, leadership, supervision and interpersonal relationship needs to be made possible so that school administrators and other educational stakeholders can adjust school environment, accordingly to foster satisfaction amongst teacher.

In addition the researcher observed that teachers’ needs, desire and expectation might not be met in these states and this has made teachers go on strike to express their feelings about delay in the payment of salaries, grants and benefits, promotion, poor salary scale to mention a few. In view of this teachers become unhappy with their jobs and have made them to give less attention to their primary assignment which now made the students to be at the receiving end. It has also affected the students’ academic performance and made some of them to roam around the streets, their neighborhood and become hawkers on the streets.

On the other hand this has lead some students to drop out of school as a result of unwanted pregnancy while some students utilized these periods to learn some trade such as tailoring and decoration. It is on the basis of the variables discussed so far that the background of this study was built.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Generally, managers all over the world are continually confronted with the problem of how best to make workers perform efficiently and effectively and at the best possible level. It is also the desire of every employer that the employees in his organization be happy and satisfied with their work in order to achieve organizational goals. Thus, the idea of getting business education teachers satisfied so that they can perform their duty diligently could be seen as of great importance to the society. Business education teachers, like other workers, have needs and expectations. If they are not duly met, teaching of business subjects becomes unattractive. However, factors such as promotion, adequate facilities for learning and good leadership of school heads are important variables in how satisfied teachers are with their jobs which ultimately affects their performance.

 

Education is the bed rock of nation building and for this to be attained school environment has to be properly establish. In Osun and Oyo states there are a lot of secondary schools which includes both public and private. Some parents prefer to send their children to private schools in these states due to the fact that some of the public schools might not be in good conditions such as inadequate classroom, classroom facilities and teaching resources as well as inadequate staff, staffrooms and staff room facilities while some parents still send their wards to these public schools due to the economy situation of the country which might make them not to be able to afford the cost of private schools and this has lead to mass enrolment of students, their by making the schools to be populated. In addition the manpower in terms of teachers might not be adequate such that teachers who retired are not replaced and this has lead to a heavy workload on the teachers presently in service.

However an ideal teaching environment is expected to be an environment that is conducive. The condition of service is satisfactory, working relationship that exists between teachers and their supervisors and within themselves as teachers is cordial; there is availability and adequate classrooms, classroom facilities such as chairs, desks, chalk and blackboard. Also the instructional materials that are needed such as textbooks, charts and pictures are made available. Promotions take place as at when due, also all allowances and salaries are paid at the right time but this may not be so in Osun and Oyo states as well as our teaching environment of today.

In addition prior to the present administration, the civil servant welfare which the teachers are part of it was a paramount thing. Salaries were paid promptly, retirement entitlements were not delayed. Pupils population were limited to thirty (30) per class which brought about many arms in schools and this lead to the promotions of many teachers and increase in employment. Also the minimum wage was signed and approved by the last administration.

Moreover this may no longer be the case in these states. This made the researcher assumed that presently the minimum wage has not been effective for workers above level 6 which logically means that office workers including teachers at this level have not been beneficiaries of the minimum wage and this made the teachers to feel that they are not being properly taken care of talk less of being motivated for the best performance in the job. Also the states and the teachers are faced with a lot of problems such as students poor academic performance, administrative problems, inadequate classroom, classroom facilities, poor salary scale delay in the payment of staff salaries, grants and benefits, promotion bottle necks, handling of discipline, lack of respect for teaching profession and student’s poor attitude towards learning.

It is on the basis of these problems that the researcher assessed the influence of job satisfaction on the job performance of secondary school business education teachers in Osun and Oyo state, Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to assess the influence of job satisfaction of secondary school business education teachers on their job performance in Osun and Oyo states. The specific objectives were to:

 

  1. assess how salary influences job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. investigate how fringe benefits influence job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. determine how in-service training influences job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. assess how promotion influences job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. investigate how working relationship with employer influences job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states Nigeria.

 

  1. determine how physical working environment influences job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. determine how societal attitude towards teaching influences job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

1.4 Research Questions

In line with the specific objectives, the following research questions were answered:

  1. What is the influence of salary on job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria?

 

  1. What is the influence of fringe benefits on job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria?

 

  1. What is the influence of in-service training on job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria?

 

  1. What is the influence of promotion on job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria?

 

  1. What is the influence of working relationship with employer on job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria?

 

  1. What is the influence of physical working environment on job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria?

 

  1. What is the influence of societal attitude towards teaching on job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria?

 

1.5 Research Hypotheses

In line with the specific objectives, the following hypotheses were formulated and tested in the course of the study.

 

  1. Salary has no significant influence on the job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. Fringe benefits have no significant influence on the job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. In-service training has no significant influence on the job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. Promotion has no significant influence on the job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. Working relationship with employer has no significant influence on the job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. Physical working environment has no significant influence on the job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

  1. Societal attitude towards teaching has no significant influence on the job performance of business education teachers in secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states, Nigeria.

 

1.6 Significance of the Study

The result of this study will benefit the government of Osun and Oyo states, business education teachers, business students and the society in the following areas:

Firstly, the findings will be valuable tools to Osun and Oyo states government for improving the general working conditions of business education teachers in the states. This will bring about continuity and less turnover of teachers in the system. Also when the teachers are satisfied they will perform better.

Business education teachers will benefit from the result of the study which will serve as a guide in arranging for measures to ameliorate job performance so as to promote quality teaching of business subjects in Osun and Oyo states secondary schools.

The result of the study will also serve as an eye opener to business students and this will encourage them to improve and be serious with their studies to do their best, so as to bring better job satisfaction to their teachers. It will also create a better learning condition for student.

Finally, the findings will enable the society to see teachers as part of the society and that the teachers train their children to become future leaders so as to make the country a better place to be. Also the teachers help in molding the lives of these children to become responsible in life.

1.7 Basic Assumption

 

For the purpose of the study the following assumptions were made:

 

  1. Better conditions of service can influence job performance of business education teachers.

 

  1. Students’ performance can have favourable or adverse influence on job satisfaction of business education teachers.

 

  1. Business education teachers can be satisfied or dissatisfied with their job.

 

1.8 Delimitation of the Study

The researcher delimited the study to four hundred and sixty five (465) business education teachers in Osun and Oyo states. Public secondary schools in Osun and Oyo states were chosen for the study because they have similar characteristics and mode of operation. Business education teachers who teach accounting, commerce, typing and shorthand, and business studies were chosen as the target for the study in order to assess the influence of job satisfaction on the teachers’ job performance. This was due to the reason that these are the subjects relating to business and are taught by business education teachers.

 

Although there are many factors that influence job satisfaction of employees, the researcher considered the following factors; condition of service (salary, fringe benefits, in-service training and promotion) working relationship with employers, physical working environment and societal attitude towards teaching to assess the job satisfaction of business education teachers and how they influences their job performance in Osun and Oyo states. Condition of service comprises of different factors from which the researcher delimited it to salary, fringe benefits, in-service

training, and promotion. This is because the researcher feels that they are among the most important factors of motivation in job satisfaction as well as in job performance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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