ANALYSIS OF TEACHING APPROACHES USED IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES
Background to the Study
The evaluation of educational resources in promoting teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools is indisputable. The teaching of business education subject in Nigerian secondary schools needs to be properly handled. The materials used by teachers to teach and drive home their subject points at the secondary school levels of our education system is undeniably a paramount important issue in practical classroom interaction and successful transfer of knowledge from the teacher to the learners.
Educational resources assist teachers to make their lessons explicit to learners. They are also used to transmit information, ideas and notes to learners (Ijaduola, 2007). Educational resources include teachers and instructional materials include both visuals and audiovisuals such as pictures, flashcards, posters, charts, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. These materials serve as supplement to the normal processes of instruction.
According to Aromolaran (2006), three major languages are used in teaching and communicating ideas of business education subject. These languages include theory or verbal, geometric or graphical, and algebraic or mathematical language.
The importance and technicality of business education subject makes it necessary that relevant human resources and instructional materials should be used to teach it to the learners at secondary level. This fact is supported by Macaulay (2009) who asserts that visual aids make lesson come alive and help students to learn better. It is against this background that this study attempts to examine the extent to which the utilization of instructional materials could advance secondary school students performance in business education subject.
Poor academic achievement in business education subject could be attributed to many factors among which teacher’s strategy itself was considered as an important factor. This implies that the mastery of business education concepts might not be fully achieved without availability and efficient use of the use instructional resources. The teaching of business education without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievement. Franzer et al, (2002) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.
Researchers such as Obioha (2006) reported that there were inadequate resources for teaching in secondary schools in Nigeria. They further stated that the available ones are not usually in good conditions. There is the need therefore, for improvisation. Daramola, (2008) however noted that improvisation demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance on the part of the teacher, such skills are only realizable through well-planned training programme on improvisation.
However, a conceptually sound, well designed, properly implemented evaluation system of business education resources is indeed an essential component for effectiveness of business education and a key to increasing performance in business education subject in schools. Evaluation of business education resources is important for determining the reasons for effective implementation and delivery of educational policies, programmes or projects. For example, the findings of a formative evaluation process can provide valuable feedback on issues such as the planning and design of courses, as well as aspects of the content and the teaching methods employed.
Statement of the Problem
The act of teaching is fundamentally concerned with passing ideas, skills and attitude from the teacher to the learner. In Nigeria, for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in the communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. Every year, when the results of public examination are released, there has always been complaining of failure in the major course like Business Studies.
The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that there are topics in business education subject that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the learning practical. On the foregoing, scholars like Mutebi and Matora (2004) have emphasized the effect of instructional materials utilisation on teaching and learning. According to them, we learn and remember 10% of what we hear 40% of what we discuss with others and as high as 80% of what we experience directly or practice. This has been the motivation for the study to focus on evaluation of resource available for teaching and learning business education subject in secondary schools.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of the research is to carry out an evaluation of Business Education resources available for teaching and learning in secondary schools in Moro Local Government Area of Kwara State. The objectives of this study are to:
- Determine the available resources for teaching and learning business education subject in secondary schools in Moro local government area of Kwara State.
- Ascertain the extent to which Secondary School students learning business education subject are influenced by the use of instructional materials.
- Evaluate the state of resources available for the teaching of business education in Moro local government area of Kwara State.
- Determine whether there is any difference in the academic performance of secondary schools students in business education subject due to the availability and use of instructional materials.
In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were raised to guide the investigation:
- What resources are available for teaching and learning of business education subject in secondary schools?
- Which educational resources will influence the teaching and application of business education subject in secondary schools?
- What is the state or condition of the available resources to teach and learn business education subject in secondary school?
- Will there be any difference in the performance of secondary school students in business education subject due to the availability and effective use of instructional resources for teaching and learning?
The following null hypotheses were tested for the study:-
- There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female teachers on the effectiveness of the use of instructional resources to teaching of business education subject.
- There is no significant difference between the responses of experienced and inexperience teachers on the effective use of instructional resources on the teaching of business education subject.
- There is no significant difference in the mean scores of public and private school teachers on the effective use of instructional resources suitable for teaching business education subject.
Significance of the Study
The use of instructional materials gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. This is because according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials.
The study would enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students’ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.
The study is also significant to the educational system and society at large. This is because when teachers solidify their teaching with instructional materials and the learners learn effectively, the knowledge acquired will reflect in the society positively. Students will be able to understand the functioning of the economy, interpret government’s economic policies and activity and perform economically better in the choice of life and work.
Scope of the Study
This study is focused on evaluating the effect of instructional material utilization on the advancement of secondary school students’ performance in business education subject in Moro LGA of Kwara State. Due to time and financial constraints, the study is limited to selected secondary schools in the Moro Local Government Area of Kwara State. This is because the researcher has more and immediate access to the secondary schools in this local government area and as such had the opportunity of having a comprehensive knowledge of the area and its environs.
Limitation of Study
The limitation that encountered in the course of this research study was the delay in getting data from the various respondents. Most people were reluctant in filling research questionnaires given to them due to their busy schedules and nature of work. The researcher would found it difficult to collect responses on time and this hampered the success of the study.
Definition of Terms
The relevant terms below were operationally defined relative to their usage in this study:-
- Effect:This is the change (outcome) that is brought to the students by their teachersas a result of teaching and learning.
- Utilization: The act of using or making a practical use of the available resources to achieve a purpose
- Academic performance: This is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills, shown in the school subject such achievements are indicated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers. It is the school evaluation of students’ classroom work as quantified on the basis of marks or grades.
- Instructional Material: These are the materials the teacher uses to make the lesson more interesting and understandable.
- Resources: This is regarded as material or instruments that serve as source of help to the teacher to enable the students to understand the subject matter.
- Teaching: The systematic presentation of facts, ideas, skills, and techniques to students. It is the process of impacting knowledge or skills to student as a result of instruction or examples.
- Learning: This is regarded as the process of acquiring knowledge or developing the ability to perform new behaviours. It is a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of past experience, environment, or the acquisition of new knowledge
ANALYSIS OF TEACHING APPROACHES USED IN TEACHING BUSINESS STUDIES