ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ILORIN-SOUTH OF KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL IN ILORIN-SOUTH OF KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

Waste is defined as eliminated or discarded unwanted or unusable material, substances, or by products produced by individuals, households or organizations. As a result, waste is a complex mixture of different substances, only some of which are intrinsically hazardous to health and human activities have always generated waste. Increasing population levels, booming economy, rapid urbanization and the rise in community living standards have greatly accelerated the municipal solid waste generation rate in developing countries.

The aim of this study is to assess the environmental and health impact of solid waste management in Ilorin-South LGA.

Community based cross sectional study design was employed. Data were collected using structured questionnaire on socio demographic, environmental and health impacts of solid waste management system of Ilorin-South LGA. A total of 634 residents between age of 18 and 65 years were interviewed. FGD was conducted on two groups from two Whereas. Data were analyzed and presented using tables, charts and figures.

The response rate was 99.2%. Among the residents, 82.5% perceived that their environment is dirty; 38.8% received information about waste management through media, followed by school (26.2%). About 90% of them used hands for waste management risking their health. Diarrhea and cough are the most prevalent diseases related to waste contamination. Assigning workers (67.1%), timely cleaning campaign (14.9%) and awareness creation trainings (12.6%) were measures employed from the LGA administration to alleviate the problem.

The environmental and health impacts of solid waste disposal system in Ilorin-South LGA, Kwara State is high. Residents of the LGA have been suffering from related diseases due to poor solid waste management system. There is lack of awareness on how to store and dispose the solid waste produced at their households. Diarrhea and cough were the most prevalent. Support from the municipality on how to handle, store and dispose solid waste is not satisfactory. Expectation of the residents from the government was also high. Ilorin-South LGA administration, respective were as sanitation offices and wired health bureaus should be responsible for the alleviation of solid waste related problems of the LGA.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background

Waste is defined as eliminated or discarded unwanted or unusable material, substances, or by products (Strategies, 2012; Al-khatib et al., 2007). According to the Basel Convention of the United Nations environment program „Wastes are substances or objects, which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law (Zemen, 2014). Glossary of Environment Statistics (Strategies, 2012) defines waste in another way as following: “Wastes are materials that are not prime products (that is products produced for the market) for which the initial user has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, and of which he/she wants to dispose”. As a result, waste is a complex mixture of different substances, only some of which are intrinsically hazardous to health (Rushton, 2018). Human activities have always generated waste (Giusti, 2009). Increasing population levels, booming economy, rapid urbanization and the rise in community living standards have greatly accelerated the municipal solid waste generation rate in developing countries (Abarca et al., 2013). It became a serious problem with urbanization and the growth of large population.

Poor management of waste led to contamination of water, soil and atmosphere and to a major impact on public health. In medieval times, epidemics associated with water contaminated with pathogens decimated the population of Europe and even more recently (19th century), cholera was a common occurrence (Giusti, 2009). Some of the direct health impacts of the mismanagement of waste are well known and can be observed especially in developing countries.

The environmentally acceptable management of municipal solid waste has become a global challenge due to limited resources, ever increasing population, rapid urbanization and industrialization worldwide (Giusti, 2009; Pokhrel & Vira Raghavan, 2005; Sharolyn & Ahmad, 2008). Statistics has shown that the world population reached 6 billion in 2001 with 46% of this population residing in urban areas. The urban population in developed nations was 75% of the total population in those countries, whereas the urban population in developing nations accounted for

40% of the total (Pokhrel & Vira Raghavan, 2005)

Municipalities, usually responsible for waste management in the cities have the challenge to provide effective and efficient systems to the inhabitants (Abarca et al., 2013). However, they often face problems beyond the ability of the municipal authority to tackle mainly due to lack of organization, financial resources, complexity and system multi dimensionality (Abarca et al., 2013).

Poor collection and inadequate transportation are responsible for the accumulation of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) at every nook. The management of MSW is going through a critical phase, due to the unavailability of suitable facilities to treat and dispose of the larger amount of MSW generated daily in metropolitan cities. Unscientific disposal causes an adverse impact on all components of the environment and human health (Sharolyn & Ahmad, 2008).

1.2 Objectives of the study

1.2.1 General Objective

The aim of this study is to assess the environmental and health impact of solid waste management in Ilorin-South LGA.

1.2.2 Specific Objectives

 

The specific objectives are:

  • To explore awareness and habits of waste management practices of Ilorin-South LGA inhabitants
  • To identify solid waste management practices and its challenges in Ilorin-South LGA
  • To assess the health and environmental impact of solid waste disposal in Ilorin-South LGA based on data obtained from health posts and interviews with the residents

1.3 Statement of the problem

Urban waste management has been a challenge for municipalities and urban governments in the developing world, largely due to poor infrastructure, bureaucratic competence and limited institutional capacity of the municipalities (Giusti, 2009). Municipalities throughout Nigeria are not free of these problems and are facing a major challenge with solid waste management.

Kwara State, the capital city of Nigeria, like many other towns and cities of the developing countries has a serious problem in the provision of adequate solid waste management services.

Improper solid waste management causes all types of pollution: air, soil, and water. Health and safety issues also arise from improper solid waste management. The rapid population growth of Kwara State has been putting tremendous pressures on the city, not least in terms of environmental degradation. For instance, 35 percent of the solid waste generated by the city is not collected. The aesthetic quality of the city has deteriorated and the health situation of the community has come under serious threat (World Bank, 1999). Although some researchers came up with similar studies in the city, no such research finding has been accessed in the present study area, i.e, Ilorin-South LGA. Due to shortage of logistics, financial and time limitations and the burden that the solid wastes impose on the aesthetic image of the city, the research focuses only on solid waste disposal system in the LGA administration.

Therefore, this study addresses the following research questions:

  1. How does the LGA manage its solid waste? What are the methods used for collection, sorting and disposal methods used and what are the challenges?
  2. What are the impacts of the solid waste management systems on the environment? How do the residents perceive the impacts of solid waste on their environment?
  3. What are the health impacts of the solid waste management among the residents of the LGA?

1.4 Significance of the study

Different research findings revealed that poor solid waste management in cities leads to environmental pollution and poor health condition of its residents. In order to cope with the problem related to waste management system it is mandatory to know the waste management system of the study area. Furthermore, the health and environmental impact of solid waste in the LGA should be assessed.

Therefore, this study provides important information concerning the waste management strategy, and the health and environmental impact of solid waste in Ilorin-South LGA to the  health professionals, Woreda health centers, residents of the area and significant others. So that will help them take contemporary solutions to solve the problem from its grass root if there will be any. Furthermore, it will provide baseline information to any interested researcher to conduct further research up on it.

 

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