PREVELENCE OF PEPTIC ULCER AMONG STUDENT ATTENDING DR. JOHN ADAH COLLEGE OF HEALTH, OTUKPO BENUE STATE

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PREVELENCE OF PEPTIC ULCER AMONG STUDENT ATTENDING DR. JOHN ADAH COLLEGE OF HEALTH, OTUKPO BENUE STATE

ABSTRACT.

The study assessed the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease among students of Dr. John Adah College of Healthand the objectives of study were to find out the gender distribution of peptic ulcer disease and to find out which age group is more affected by peptic ulcer disease among students of Dr. John Adah College of Health

It was a retrospective study in which quantitative methods were used to collect data from the patients and later described, compared and analyzed different variables

The study found out that PUD is highly prevalent among students of Dr. John Adah College of Health (14.8%) and is highest among the middle age group of 31-40 years (32.7%), with females (66.7%) being more affected than males (33.3%).

In conclusion, although some interventions have been put in place to manage PUD, its prevalence is still high and more interventions are required therefore the following were the recommendations made after the study, Community sensitization on causes of PUD should be enforced at hospitals and also better diagnostic techniques should be used for early diagnosis of

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

This chapter will contain background of the study,  problem statement, study objectives, study questions and justification of the study and scope of the study.

1.1 BACKGROUND

Ulceration of the Gastric or Duodenal mucosa occurs in many individuals. The term peptic ulcer disease includes both the gastric and duodenal ulcers. Among the mechanisms that may contribute to ulcer formation are diminished effectiveness of the gastric mucosal barriers, hyper secretion of acid, and infection by Helicobacter pylori bacteria.

PUD is a common disorder that affects millions of individuals in the United States each year. Peptic ulcer disease has a major impact on our health care system by accounting for roughly 10% of medical costs for digestive diseases (WHO, 2003). In the last two decades, major advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease, particularly regarding the role of Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This has led to important changes in diagnostic and treatment strategies, with potential for improving the clinical outcome and for decreasing health care costs (CDC, 2006)

The geographical distribution of a disease may provide valuable clues with regard to its aetiology. Likewise any historical changes in prevalence, associated with changes in the mode of living, may give additional information.

The worldwide ulcer prevalence differs, with duodenal ulcers dominating in Western populations and gastric ulcers being more frequent in Asia, especially in Japan (Park et al, 2011). Although the incidence of peptic ulcer disease in Western countries has declined over the past 100 years, around 1 in 10 Americans are still affected (Dwayne et al, 2010). The annual financial burden of peptic ulcer disease in the US, including direct and indirect costs, is estimated as US$3.4 billion (CDC, 2010). Since peptic ulcer disease is still common, and peaks in the elderly, it is expected that its impact on human health and health economics will remain an important issue in the future.

Tovey&Tunstall, (2005)have shown that there is a definite geographical pattern to the distribution of duodenal ulcer in sub‐Saharan Africa, with a high incidence being reported in the Nile/Congo watershed and coastal regions of West Africa. High incidence rates of duodenal ulcer have also been reported in a number of major cities of Africa (Johannesburg, Durban, (Robbs&Moshal, 2009)Nairobi, and Mombasa) (Tovey&Tunstall, 2005). In a recent study by Kidd et al, (2009) 26% of patients with dyspepsia had DU, and of these H. pylori was present in 90%.

Gastric ulcer is uncommon in Africa, occurring 6–30 times less commonly than DU (Tovey&Tunstall, 2005). In developed nations, the ratio of DU:GU is between 3:1 and 4:1. In Africa, a wide range of DU:GU ratios has been reported varying from 3:1 to 15–20:1 (Mohamed et al, 2010). A retrospective endoscopic review of dyspeptic patients from 12 African countries found that 7% had GU, and that H. pylori was present in 75% of these patients (Kidd et al, 2009).

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

In Africa, the highest prevalence was reported to be in the great lakes region, (Borin et al, 2004), where duodenal ulcer surgery forms the major part of all abdominal surgery.

The area includes Rwanda and Burundi, eastern DRC around Lake Kivu, extreme western Tanzania adjacent to Burundi, and south-western Uganda (Taylor, 1965), where Bushenyi district, Kampala International University teaching Hospital (KIUTH) in particular are located.

In Uganda, PUD prevalence is estimated to range between 12% and 25% (UBOS, 2010).

 

PUD is common in developing countries in general and Uganda in particular (Opoiet al, 2009). There is a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection (MoH, 2006). There are many difficult problems to overcome in trying to establish the prevalence of a disease with a low mortality such as PUD. These problems are considerable in developed countries and much greater in developing countries.

Despite the scarcity of recent accurate data on prevalence and the reported increase in PUD cases in Uganda, (MOH, 2006) many health facilities including hospitals are without x-ray facilities. Surgical statistics can be selective and misleading. As a result, very little has been done to document the prevalence of PUD in various populations including the predictors for susceptibility.

There this study on prevalence of peptic ulcer disease among students of Dr. John Adah College of Health will bridge the existing information gap.

1.3 OBJECTIVES

1.3.1 Broad objective

  1. To estabish the prevalence of peptic ulcer disease among patients attending of Kampala International University Teaching Hospital.

1.3.2 Specific objectives

This includes the following;

  1. To find out the gender distribution of peptic ulcer disease among patients attending Kampala International University Teaching Hospital
  2. To find out which age group is more affected by peptic ulcer disease among patients attending of Kampala International University Teaching Hospital.

1.4 Research questions

  1. What is the gender distribution of peptic ulcer disease among patients attending Kampala International University Teaching Hospital?
  2. Which age group is most affected by peptic ulcer disease among students of Dr. John Adah College of Health

1.5 STUDY JUSTIFICATION

This study wasdesigned to determine the prevalence of PUD among patients of KIUTH so that the prevalence & predictors are better documented in the study population. This study is therefore expected to contribute to the building of the much needed data on prevalence of PUD.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.6.1 Geographical scope

The study was meant to find the prevalence of PUD among patients who attended KIUTH during the months of April 2017 to May 2017.

 

1.6.2 Content scope

PUD which is Ulceration of gastro-duodenal mucosa tends to be chronic and recurrent if untreated, caused by Helicobacter pylori infection and hyperacidity due to drugs (NSAIDS e.g. acetylsalicylic acid, corticosteroids), irregular meals among others. It  is characterized by epigastric pain typically worse at night and when hungry(duodenal ulcer) alleviated by food, milk, or antacid, epigastric pain, worse with food (gastric ulcer), vomiting, nausea, regurgitation and discomfort on palpation of the upper abdomen

1.6.3 Time scope.

The study was meant to be conducted from March 2017 to June 2021

PREVELENCE OF PEPTIC ULCER AMONG STUDENT ATTENDING DR. JOHN ADAH COLLEGE OF HEALTH, OTUKPO BENUE STATE

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