WASTE GENERATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS

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WASTE GENERATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Solid waste is an unavoidable by-product of human activities. Solid waste may be regarded as any rejected material resulting from domestic activity and industrial operations for which there is no economic demand and that can be disposed (Sridhar, 1998). Economic development, urbanization, and improved living standards in cities increase quantity and complexity of generated solid waste (SW). If accumulated, SW leads to degradation of the environment, stresses natural resources, and leads to health issues (Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)(2009.

Cities worldwide are facing higher levels of pollution to multiple environmental media. The situation in less-developed countries (LDCs) is more acute, partly caused by inadequate provision of basic services like sanitation facilities, the infrastructure, and waste collection (United Nations Center for Human Settlements, 2001). Municipal corporations in  LDCs are not able to handle the increasing quantity of SW, which leads to uncollected SW on roads and in other places.

          From the days of primitive society human and animal have used the resources of the   earth to support and to dispose of wastes. Historically, the disposal of human and other waster did not pose a significant problem because the po  was relatively small and the land  available for assimilation of waste was relatively large (Tchobanoglous, Theisen , 2008) The present day problem however, has reached a great proportion in LDCs including Nigeria.

In Nigeria, the rate of generation of  solid wastes increases by the day with increases in urban populations. An  estimated 20 kilograms of solid waste is generated per capita per year in Nigeria(Olafusi, 2009). The majority of this is collected and dumped on the surface of the ground, and is mostly transferred from one location to the other rather than  being  properly disposed of, a practice known to pose serious health hazards to the community (Nigerian Environment Action Study Team, 2009). Similarly Mabogunje (2008) and Filani (2008) documented how severe unsanitary condition characterized urban centers. Inadequate provisions exist for dealing with municipal solid waste (MSW), which leads to air and water pollution.

Every school generates waste arising from routine activities such as class work, sweeping, serving of food, and bush cutting. The common types of solid wastes found in various schools in LDC communities include paper, grass, nylon for  manufacture of pure water bags and biscuits , lollypops, ice cream, and sweet or candy wrappers, sugar cane or corn cobs, and groundnut shells (Wahab, 2008). Other forms of wastes may also be found on school premises, and these may not have even been generated directly by pupils and teachers.

Economic development, urbanization improved   living standards in cities, and increase in enrollment of  schools children due to government policies  in LDCs increase  the quantity and complexity of generated solid waste in schools. If  accumulated, this class of MSW may lead to degradation of the urban environment, stresses on limited natural resources and may lead to various health issues (CPCB, 2009). Globally, most public schools are facing a high level of pollution situation in LDCs such as Nigeria is where it is more acute, partly because of the lack of adequate solid waste disposal facilities (Fajehisan, 2008)

The problems associated with the disposal of wastes in public places including schools are numerous and they include littering of food remains and other discarded materials. This can lead to the breeding of rats and other vectors of public health importance, i.e. biological agents of exposure (Sridhar & Ojediran, 2009). Rats can also destroy school materials such as paper and valuable documents. The U. S Public Health Service, for example, publisher results tracing the relationship of 22 human diseases to improper solid waste management (Mabogunje, 1968). In Nigerian, sanitation including proper MSW management is commonly thought of as one of the indicators of available primary health care services in the country.

The potential health and Environmental quality issues associated with these have a potential for grave consequent. Open dumping of solid waste generates various environmental and health hazards. The  decomposition of rogation materials produces methane, which can cause fire and explosions, and contributes to global climate change. The  biological and chemical processes likely taking place in open dumps produce strong leachates, which pollute both water and groundwater sources Fires periodically  break out in open dumps, generating smoke and contributing to pollution. In the Mexican city of Tampico, on the Gulf of Mexico coast, an inferno occurred for over six months at the open dump. Fires at open dumps often start the spontaneously by the methane and heat generated from biological decomposition (Medina, 2008). This situation is also dangerous  because in that study and in this study most of the burning usually occurred near  the classrooms.

In addition, a situation characterized by persistent financial  resource constraints represents one of the factors hampering solid waste  management in Nigeria, especially in  public urban areas including schools (Adew, 1992; Enugu State environmental Sanitation Agency 1991; Lagos State Waste Disposal Board, 1991; Unite Nations Development prohrammas 1978; Zubairu, 1992). Unlike in developed countries, which typically receive enough revenue allocation from the State federal budget, most state agencies in LDCs  like Nigeria operate with little subsidy from the state or federal  governments. Apart from funding Hasan (2008 reported public awareness, community participation, appreciate legislation, and strong technical support are key components to successful MSW management.

Subramanian (2009) argued environmentally sound management of MSW has received a prime focus by both the international community and most nations  governments. This is evidenced by recent paper about MSW in other on various continents or island nations (Norucci, Minciardi, Robba, & Sacile, 2008; Goorah, Esmyot, & Boojhawon, 2009 Henry, Yongsheng, & Jun, 2008; Nasrabaadi Liveidi , Bidhendi, Yavari, & Mohammadnejad, 2008). Thus, a comprehensive MSW management regime should include ministrative, financial, legal, planning, and  engineering functions (Ramachandra & Varghese, 2003). This system, if well implemented, could reverse the current modicum of standard MSW management present in most Urban centers where many schools are located.

A study in primary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria, suggested that waste management facilities are inadequate Waste sorting and segregation is not practiced and as a result recycling and other proper disposal practices become cumbersome or are not practiced improved hygiene education and sanitation are important requirement and if  introduction  would be mainstreamed into the school system then the resulting increase  in proper MSW management would reduce disease burden and hence enhance the environmental public health status of the community and its  schoolchildren. A clean, safe, secure and enabling learning environment is an indispensable perquisite to ensure optimization of a child’s academic potential Government and other stakeholders should provide the necessary sure terms infrastructure improvements and MSW management amenities, including financial, human, and technology resources to make schools more conducive for learning and to promote good health.

After the home, schools constitute the next most important place of learning and where children spend most of the time in particular indoors for study an outdoors while at play. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess knowledge and practical at solid waste management among secondary students in Orumba North L.G.A Anambra State, Nigeria

Statement of problem

Nigeria cities and towns generate millions of tones of refuse annually with schools in them contributing significantly. It has been estimated that over 9 million tones of refuse was created in most Nigerian cities as for back as 1983 (Chikwedu, 2009).

Commenting further on this, Ogwuleke (2009), noted that 25 million tones of municipal waste are generated annually in Nigeria. How such waste is disposed of has become an issue of serious concern particularly in schools with the ever rising rate of school enrolment. Inadequate management of solid waste resents in health issues hazards which are better prevented than suffered. These hazards can reach water and food and pollute the ambient environment and also may bring about chemical intoxication. Health hazards multiply through the agency of flies, rats and mosquitoes and such chemicals as lead mercury and other heavy metals. All these result from wastes that are  not well-conserved. The threat of vermin infestation and chemical intoxication resulting from poor solid waste management can be more in primary schools. It is therefore imperative that this study to uncover the level of knowledge and practice of solid waste management among primary school students be undertaken in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State, Nigeria with a view to correcting any poor standards that may be found.

Purpose of the study

The general purpose of this study is to determine the knowledge and practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA Anambra State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To ascertain the level of knowledge and practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA of Anambra State.
  2. To ascertain the level of knowledge of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA of Anambra State based on age.
  3. To ascertain the level of knowledge of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA of Anambra State based on gender.
  4. To ascertain the level of knowledge of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA of Anambra State based on class of study
  5. To ascertain the level of practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA of Anambra State based on age.
  6. To ascertain the level of practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA of Anambra State based on gender.
  7. To ascertain the level of practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA of Anambra State based on class of study.

Research Questions

  1. What is the level of knowledge of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State?
  2. What is the level of knowledge of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on age?
  3. What is the level of knowledge of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on gender?
  4. What is the level of knowledge of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on class of study?
  5. What is the level of practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State?
  6. What is the level of practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on age?
  7. What is the level of practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on gender?
  8. What is the level of practice of solid waste management among primary school students in Orumba North  LGA,  Anambra State based on class of study?

Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference in the knowledge of solid waste management among students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on age.
  2. There is no significant difference in the practice of solid waste management among students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on age.
  3. There is no significant difference in the knowledge and practice of solid waste management among students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on gender.
  4. There is no significant difference in the knowledge of solid waste management among students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on class of study.
  5. There is no significant difference in the practice of solid waste management among students in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State based on class of study.

Significance of the study

This study will be of great value to students in the field of waste management, environmental science, public health and other related fields of study. The information made available by this study will form a reference resource to other researchers in the field solid waste management . It will be useful to school authorities who wish to create and maintain a healthy physical environment. The general public will also benefit from the findings of this study in the area of creating and sustaining a healthy environment. Being the first of its kind in Orumba North LGA, Anambra State, the study occupies a pride of place.

WASTE GENERATION MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS

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