AN ASSESSMENT OF ECO FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HOUSING IN NASARAWA STATE

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AN ASSESSMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HOUSING IN NASARAWA STATE

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to assess the level of use of geosynthetic materials by construction stakeholders in Lagos-island and the determining factors responsible for the choice and selection of these materials for construction purposes. Previous studies conducted has shown that the use of geosynthetic materials is increasing daily in India. Also, studies reveal that there is a considerable strength a soil will attain when reinforced with geotextiles and related products. Likewise, previous research showed that natural fiber is considerably good for its eco-compatibility attributes. Therefore, as a result of research gap in the level of use of geosynthetic materials, this study made use of a purposive stratified sampling for data collection from respondents who are the stakeholders in Lagos-island Construction industry. The data used for this study was gathered through a structured questionnaire from the respondents and the data was analyzed using frequency, percentage, mean score and relative importance index which are descriptive and spearman correlation inferential statistics respectively to achieve the research objectives. The findings revealed that the mostly known geosynthetic material is geotextile (with a mean score value of 4.3 and RII of 0.91) and followed by geomembranes (with a mean score value of 3.95 and RII of 0.0.83). Also, the mostly used geosynthetic material is the geotextile (with a mean score value of 3.71 and RII of 0.74) and geomembranes (with a mean score value of 3.34 and RII of 0.67). It was gathered that the most influencing factor on the choice and usage of geosynthetic material is High Strength (with a mean score value of 4.53 and RII of 0.91) followed by Quality assurance and control (with a mean score value of 4.47 and RII of 0.0.85) and Biodegradability (with a mean score value of 4.42 and RII of 0.88)  which makes it to have a long-life span. The study further identified the major factor affecting the usage to be Effect of weather (with a mean score value of 4.74 and RII of 0.95), followed by User’s choice (with a mean score value of 4.63 and RII of 0.93) and cost as the third affecting factor (with a mean score value of 4.61 and RII of 0.92). This study showed that there is no existing relationship (there is no significant correlation) among the stakeholders in the choice of geosynthetic usage. This research concludes that professionals are moderately aware of geosynthetic materials as a result of their construction experiences and the major factor affecting the use is weather condition of the environment and lack of relationship among the stakeholders.

 

AN ASSESSMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HOUSING IN NASARAWA STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

I. I       Background to the Study

The Construction Industry comprises of various firms and companies that are saddled with the responsibilities of building construction, infrastructural development and all civil Engineering works. In view of this, the Industry has unique capabilities on infrastructural development, new construction works, repairs, maintenance works and any form of demolition works (Danny,2004). Myers (2013) opined that the Construction Industry is a big and multifaceted industry, housing many members of professionals and contributing significantly to the nations’ economic growth. In light of her contribution, it has an imperative attribute of adding to the Gross Domestic Product of the nation thereby, increasing the economic potentials of the nation. As argued by Olanrewaju and Abdul-Aziz (2015), the Construction Industry is alluded for the stimulation of economic development, Infrastructure development and prosperity. In relation to the economical developmental attributes of the industry, it has the ability of providing for all other sectors in the country and this gives it the potential to create wealth and prosperity. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] (2008), remarked that the Construction Industry majorly acts as a provider of buildings, building materials and Infrastructures on which nearly all other sectors in the country depends.

Furthermore, the production of building materials is a sub sector under the umbrella of the Construction Industry which helps to see to the manufacture of locally made materials for construction and infrastructural development purposes. Building Construction materials is as old as man and can be dated back to the Stone Age where stone, clay and timber were used as construction materials before the advent of concrete and steel.

Oladiran (2005), put forward that locally made building materials are being referred to as the building materials sourced for locally or manufactured with home-made raw materials, Scholars argued that there is no single definition for the word local materials and on this note, locally made building materials are those materials gotten indigenously within the country which does not involve any form of importation. Example of building materials produced locally in Nigeria includes; Dangote Portland cement, sandcrete block, ceiling asbestos, etc, expressing further, research has paved way to some other local materials such as ceiling board made from paper pulp (although not fully patronized).

Omole (2013). stressed that the term “local” when applicative in usage with building materials is in relative term. He opined that goods or any building materials produced in China, Chicago or Nigeria are all local goods at home in the respective countries. But becomes an imported good to other countries that imports those goods and products.

Adedeji (2005) put forward that Nigeria is blessed with quite number of local materials which can be sourced for locally in the country for construction works. Stressing further that with the use of locally made materials developed from either plants or animals can be used rather than the importation of materials from foreign countries. On this note, Morthur (2006) opined that India as an example, makes use of her local resources available to her and this gives light to numerous new products which can be gotten from plants such as Geotextiles with the use of sisal and jute fibers. And that these locally made materials are not well utilized in Nigeria as expected. In view of this, the available raw materials in Nigeria have to be exploited to achieve something new with international standard organization recognition. These are seen as products that can help to build up the Gross Domestic Products for the nation’s economy. In light of the encouragement needed for the implementation of raw materials to produce new products, Windapo and Iyagba (2007) affirms that the major challenge being faced with the production of local building materials is the constant availability of the required raw materials-As a result of non-availability of raw materials for production of local materials, many house producers have resorted to the use of imported materials rather than the use of the locally produced ones all because of non-sustainability, availability and durability of the locally made materials. In the light of these challenges, the construction industry has built up the prospect for the use of imported materials for sustainable and durable construction. The geosynthetic materials are imported from various countries into

Nigeria so as to possess available construction materials at her door step. In lieu of this, Olele

(2016) opined that there is an increase on the economic activities around Lekki and its environs. With a soil having low bearing capacities, it becomes a necessity to reinforce the soil using available stabilization technique.

Rudramurthy and Vikram (2016) stresses that the use of Geosynthetic material (geotextile) as reinforcement for soils in order to improve its bearing capacities has become successful. With the record of a success in the use of Geotextiles to reinforce soil gives confidence that Geotechnical Engineers in lieu of an increase in the bearing ratio of reinforced granular soils with geotextile. He further stresses that an effective means of soil improvement have been achieved with the use of geotextile material in engineering applications.

1.2       Statement of the Research Problem

Oladiran (2015) opined that one major way to bring down the cost of materials for affordable housing is a shift towards the usage of local materials in the country. An increase in the cost of procuring construction materials will lead to an increase in the cost of constructing/developing housing estates. The price of construction materials is greatly influenced by importation of construction materials for construction purposes.

On this note Aribigbola (2011) reports that affordable housing is described as the one where the occupants spends 30% or below of their annual income and spend than 20% annual income in Nigeria based on stipulated housing policy.

Additionally, (Windapo & Iyagba. 20()7) opined that there is a strong relationship between housing construction cost and the building material price, property price, money supply, national disposable incon1e, labor cost and exchange rates. Therefore, building materials are therefore one of the major predictors of future cost of housing and infrastructures in Nigeria. A shift to the usage and application of construction local materials will adequately result into possible reduction in construction cost in Nigeria and will finally promotes affordability of housing estates and development.

Ghosh (2009) discussed that man-made geotextiles of petrochemical constituents have a challenging eco-compatibility. She identified that locally made geotextiles from plant fibers possesses eco-friendliness with the environment with the users. With the light of this eco- friendliness, it was discovered that there are problems associated with the use of this material. She discovered that either slowly or quickly, there is a certainty that the natural geotextile will deplete or wear off over time and this quality makes it eco-friendly. ‘This depletion over time is a big challenge to engineers and this has controlled the use of geotextile material in some of the various ways of engineering applications.

According to Rudramurthy and Vikram, (201 6), there is a sure increase on the CBR values of soil that is reinforced with geotextiles. They in their papers carried out an experiment on the bearing ratio capacity of selected soils and the effect of geotextiles as reinforcement to the soil. It was discovered that there is a sure increase in the bearing values of the selected soils and this paved a way for the use of geotextile materials as reinforcement to soil and embankment.

Geosynthetic Institute (GSI, 2015) published that “the national and global status of geosyntheticsaware of graduating engineers, as well as new employees entering into geosynthetics design and consulting organizations is presently not only weak, but shows no promise of improving” The institute stresses that all graduating members of civil engineering and all new employees have a little knowledge of the plethora of available geosynthetic materials including the various applications they serve. It was discovered that the field of engineering is graduating numbers of student yearly both at undergraduate level and post graduate level without the knowledge of geosynthetic materials and its various ways of application.

However, several publications have been published on geosynthetics including geotextiles as well discussing about their physical and mechanical properties, the effect of geotextile on CBR values, and the need for natural geosynthetics but there has not been a publication on assessment on the use of geosynthetics (geotextiles) by construction stakeholders. Hence, there is need for an assessment on the use of geosynthetic materials by construction stakeholders in Nigerian construction industry taking Nasarawa State as a case study.

1.3       Research Questions

This research will affirmatively proffer answers to the following research questions with respect to the use of geosynthetic materials in Nasarawa State Nigeria.

  1. What is the level of use of Geosynthetic materials by construction stakeholders in Nasarawa State?
  2. What are the factors influencing the use of Geosynthetic materials by stakeholders in Nasarawa State?
  3. What the factors affecting the use of Geosynthetic materials by stakeholders in Nasarawa State?
  4. What is the relationship between contractors, consultant and clients in the use of

Geosynthetic materials in Nasarawa State Nigeria?

1.4        Aims and Objectives

The sole aim of this research is to assess the level of use of Geosynthetics by construction stakeholders in the Nigerian Construction Industry. More so. to see if there is any available technical-know-how on the application and installation of Geosynthetic materials in construction works.

  1. To investigate the level of use of Geosynthetics by construction stakeholders in Nasarawa State. 2. To assess the factors influencing the use of Geosynthetic materials by stakeholders in

Nasarawa State.

  1. To evaluate the factors affecting the use of Geosynthetic materials by stakeholders in Lagos

state.

  1. To ascertain if there is a relationship between contractors, consultant and clients in the use of Geosynthetic materials in Nasarawa State Nigeria.

1.5       Justification of the Study

Some parts of Nasarawa State in Nigeria are characterized with the problem of low bearing soil capacity are faced with the problem of low bearing soil capacities as this challenge has given way for exploring other soil stabilizing methods. Researchers in the Geotechnical field is faced with the challenge of substituting methods of soil stabilization such as the use of embarkments, use of raft foundation, pile foundation with Geosynthetics. With the principal view of its characteristic strength and durability, researchers have carried out experiment on Geosynthetics on how to improve its characteristics strength to be used in soft soil.

Furthermore, the level of awareness in contactors will affect greatly the recommendation, usage and application of Geosynthetic materials to Construction works. There are few sites that have the application and usage of Geosynthetics on soft soils in Nigeria. As a result of the increase in technology and technological advancement, the use of Geosynthetics by contractors daily across the globe is increasing significantly (Rao, 2016).

Windapo and Iyagba, (2007) opined that there is a strong relationship between housing construction cost and the building material price, property price, money supply, national disposable income, labor cost and exchange rates. Therefore, building materials are therefore one of the major predictors of future cost housing and infrastructures in Nigeria. A shift to the usage and application of construction local materials will adequately result into possible reduction in construction cost in Nigeria and will finally promotes affordability of building housing.

Ghosh, (2009) discussed that man-made geotextiles of petrochemical constituents have a challenging eco-compatibility. She identified that locally made geotextiles from plant fibers possesses eco-friendliness with the environment. With the light of this eco-friendliness, it was discovered that there are problems associated with the use. She discovered that either slowly or quickly, there is a certainty that the natural geotextile will deplete or wear off This is a big challenge to engineers and this has controlled the use of the material in some of the various ways of engineering applications.

According to Rudramurthy and Vikram, (2016), there is a sure increase on the CBR values of soil reinforced with geotextiles. They in their papers carried out an experiment on the bearing ratio capacity of selected soils and the effect of geotextiles as reinforcement to the soil. It was discovered that there is a sure increase in the bearing values of the selected soils and this paved a way for the use of geotextile materials for reinforcement.

Geosynthetic Institute (GSI, 2015) published that “the national and global status of geosyntheticsaware of graduating engineers, as well as new employees entering into geosynthetics design and consulting organization is presently not only weak. but shows no promise improving” The institute stresses that all graduating members of civil engineering and all new employees have a little knowledge of the plethora of available geosynthetic materials including the various applications they serve. It was discovered that the field of engineering is graduating numbers of student yearly both at undergraduate level and post graduate level with the knowledge of the geosynthetic material and the various ways of application of the materials.

However, several publications have been published on geosynthetics including geotextiles as well discussing about their physical and mechanical properties, the effect of geotextile on CBR values, and the need ‘for natural geosynthetics but there has not been a publication on assessment on the use of geosynthetics (geotextiles) by construction stakeholders. Hence, there is need for an assessment on the use of geosynthetic materials by construction stakeholders in Nigerian construction industry taking Nasarawa State as a case study.

1.6       Scope of Study

The research is limited to construction and housing development carried out by construction professionals and stakeholders (i.e. client, consultants and contractors) in Nasarawa State Nigeria. The research will equally cover the major factors contributing to the usage of Geosynthetic materials and other area of application.

AN ASSESSMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY BUILDING MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HOUSING IN NASARAWA STATE

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