ASSESSMENT OF THE MANAGEMENT AND CONDUCT OF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES FOR NON-ACADEMIC WORKFORCE IN AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, NIGERIA
This study was carried out to ―Assess the Organization and Conduct of Development Programmes for Non-Academic Staff in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria‖. Four objectives were postulated in line with research questions and hypotheses that guided the study. The objectives were set to: assess the organization and conduct of conference, seminar, workshop and in-service programmes for senior and junior non-academic staff in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The study used descriptive survey method that covered all nonacademic staff in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. The total population of the study comprises 445 senior non-academic staff and 1572 junior non-academic staff making total of 2017. A total of 608 samples were used in the study out of which 589 copies of questionnaire were correctly filled and returned while 19 got missing. The instrument used for the data collection was structured questionnaire tagged ―Assessment of the Organization and Conduct of Development Programmes for Non-Academic Staff
Questionnaire‖ (AOCDPNASQ). The instrument was validated by the supervisors. To ensure the reliability of the instrument, Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used during the pilot study. This yielded a reliability coefficient of r = 0.7 which shows that the instrument is reliable. Four (4) hypotheses were formulated and the testing was done by using Independent Sample (t-test). The result reveals that: workshops were organized for both senior and junior non-academic staff and in-service training was organized for both senior and junior non-academic staff in ABU, Zaria. It was concluded that, Non-academic staff were allowed to attend conference only in their areas of specialization and both senior and junior non-academic staff were sponsored for international training to acquire more knowledge and skills to boost their performance. It was recommended that, non-academic staff should be sponsored for both local and international Workshops to other countries at least once a year as this would enable them have more knowledge and skills for the improvement of their jobs. Also, conferences, seminars, workshops and in-service training should be organized for junior and senior nonacademic staff on frequent bases in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
Operational Definition of Terms
Staff Development: refers to the process whereby employees of an organization enhance their knowledge and skills in directions that are advantageous to their role in the organization.
In-Service Training: is a process of staff development for the purpose of improving the
performance of an incumbent holding a position with assigned job responsibilities.
Staff Training Scheme: is to provide staff members on opportunity to raise their standard
of general education. They are encouraged to learn new ideas and concepts and are a made enlightened members of the University community.
Seminar: in the seminars, members discuss on a selected subject or theme. One or more
trainee presents paper on the theme. The material of discussion is distributed in advance.
Conference: A conference is generally understood whereby a meeting of several people to
discuss a particular topic. During the discussion, the participants may be divided in groups for intensive discussion.
Workshop: Workshops are based on carrying out activities (the ‗work‘) rather than
listening to a presenter. This enable staff develops the knowledge, competencies and dispositions they will need in open or flexible learning.
Staff Development Programs: simply means the efforts, strategies and course of action deliberately taken to help and/or facilitate employees to achieve technical, academic and psycho social development of organizational goals.
1.1 Background to the Study
Ahmadu Bello University was established in October 1962. The University
comprises of twelve (12) faculties, one Postgraduate School, five Research Institutes and six Specialized Centers. These institutes offers multiple ranges of opportunities for postgraduate research in Administration, Agriculture, Art, Education, Engineering,
Environmental Design, Law, Medicine, Pharmaceutical Science, Biological Science and Veterinary Medicine. In order for the University to progress, her staff must undergo a series of staff development programmers.
Staff development refers to the process whereby employees of an organization enhance their knowledge and skills in directions that are advantageous to their role in the organization. Definitions of staff development may be approached from the perspectives of the developer, the employer and the person being developed. O‘Leary (1997) argued that staff development activity has to be outcome and process orientated, while Collett and Davidson (1997) suggested that a significant component of staff development is to facilitate change on a personal, professional and institutional level. Webb (1996) highlighted the need for human understanding and recognition that the feelings, emotions, humanity and ‗being‘ of the people involved play an important part in staff development. This ‗being‘ of the people was reinforced by Thornton and McEntee (1998) who viewed staff development as self-development guided by critical questions and practiced within. Frameworks that can lead to meeting the needs of all persons involved in the process. Essentially, staff development is an on-going process of education, training, learning and support activities and is concerned with helping people to grow within the organizations in which they are employed. While the term ‗staff development‘ has been defined in a number of ways, the primary purpose of nonacademic staff development is to expand their awareness of the various tasks they must undertake to contribute to the effective accomplishment of the organization‘s objectives.
Scholars (Collett, and Davidson, 1997; Turner, and Harkin, 2003; Banett, 2005; Karagiorgi and Symeou, 2006; Darzi, 2008; Nkebem, 2009; Frederick, Ngala, Stephen and Odebero, 2010) has identified variety of staff development programme in the university. This range from in-service, seminar, conference to workshops programmes. However, Complex challenges in education, such as increasingly diverse student populations, new technologies and rigorous academic standards and goals have led to the emergence of the concept of staff development within the process of lifelong service (Eurydice, 1995). Thus, emphasis internationally has shifted from the traditional oneshot workshops to a consensus‘ view of staff professional development programme. Several studies point to the need for broadening the concept of in-service, seminar, conference and workshops to a growth continuum of ongoing, participatory function that is loosely linked to the realities of universities needs and moving towards continuous professional development models (Du Plessis, 1998). Therefore, there is a need to progress to a vision of staff development as a continuum along the various types of nonacademic staff development programme- in-service training, seminar, conference and workshops. Initially, ―education and training of staffs‖ emerged as one of the sixteen indicators on quality of school education, proposed by the European Council (European Commission, May 2000). Then, ―educators and training‖ was declared to be one of the fifteen indicators used to evaluate participation in lifelong learning (European Commission, June 2002). In addition, the ―percentage of staffs and trainers in continuo‘s training‖ was identified as one of the indicators proposed for the implementation of the work programme (Education and Training 2010). With the rapid global workforce change, and the high populace, of workforce therefore, staff development programs have been fully recognized as a dream in enhancing job performance.
It is imperative therefore that, to achieve the effective acquisition and utilization of the human resource by busting in through training programs like workshop, seminars, conference and in service training. Staff development programs have therefore becomes the vehicle for maningfu1 change which plays an integral part in developing the university philosophy, goals and expansion. It is through training and development activities which differentiate in relation to the needs and resource of the university. That professionalism, productivity, individual, organizational, effectiveness and individual performance can be increased performances are often in the center of attention in Educational Institutions. The challenge experience by universities currently, such as life student enrollment, globalization of education with inherent competition for staff and student have called for performance has been contended issue in most countries due to poor co-ordination between departments among other features.
In-service training is a process of staff development for the purpose of improving the performance of an incumbent holding a position with assigned job responsibilities. It promotes the professional growth of individuals. “It is a program designed to strengthen the competencies of extension workers while they are on the job” (Malone, 1984). Inservice training is a problem-centred, learner-oriented, and time-bound series of activities which provide the opportunity to develop a sense of purpose, broaden perception of the clientele, and increase capacity to gain knowledge and mastery of techniques.
Staff development programs, according to Pigors and Myers (1981), are all efforts, strategies and course of action deliberately taken to help and/or facilitate employees to achieve technical, academic and psycho social development to enhance their contribution to the achievement of organizational goals and for national benefit the two authors contended that staff development programs encourage training, promotion, motivating and rewarding staff.
Eurydice (1995) opined that development programme like workshops,
conferences, and seminars help in developing instructing encouragement for the staff workshop aim to both challenge and extend staff to work hard. The office were being discuss such as creative conflict resolution; This involve widely addressing how staff can effectively deal with conflict in the working place, key issues that will be covered include achieving a win/win situation sparking appropriate assertiveness managing emotions, willingness to resolve managing conflict, dressing options, negotiation skills and mediation effective communication motivation, leadership development motivation.
Seminars are usually short event lasting a couple hours half day or whole day they have single and multiple speakers and keep all participant together in the same space. Ideally they so beyond the showing of facts and probe the depth of the subject matter at hand. Seminar and conferences; organizations plan and hold their meetings with targeted guidance and provide them with relevant information that will improve the skill, taking career in the next level. There is really no substance for a live learning events by interacting with roomful of pier and opportunities to ask experts question of the subject matter and examining real-world application of the information you covering it really helps cement your new knowledge; only refresh training provide staff with wide array of topics covering the problems you are facing every day.
The study is primary concern with organization and conduct among non- academic professional employees in higher education. According to U.S. Department of Education report on employees in post-secondary Institutions (Iinap-II-neid, Ginder and National centre for Education, 2009) non-academic profession employees are hires for the primary purpose of performing academic support student service and instructional support. Their assignment in the most instances would require either training in specialized areas and that they hold appropriate experience.
Non-Academic professional staffs members are key components in today‘s higher settings they are responsible for the day-today operation of a university —
(Smerek and Peterson, 2007). In Liebmans‘ (1986) study of non-academic employees in higher education, he found that non-academic employees outnumbered faculty members nationally and ―could be consider chiefly responsible for the stressful daily operations of every institution of higher learning, Because of the bureaucratic nature of professional staff to maintain functioning.
Higher Education is an either a phrase of human being (llebsman) 1986.) Where technology and service are primary driven by human resources (Jensen 2006). Thus, an innovation organization climate that maximizes the potential of its members may be a viable option for an enhance work environment where employees for an enhanced work environment where employee feel empowered to experiment with new ideas (Siegel and Kammere, 1978). Ultimately, may become important to the long- term survival of colleges and Universities in today‘s increasingly competitive environment (Jensen 2006)
Scott and Bruce, 1994)
In Ahmadu Bello University, for example, Mahadi (2004) stressed that, one of the objectives of the management of the University was to produce competent staff in the field of administration and planning. Likewise, every tertiary institution has that motive of producing competent staff in different fields of development for their employees, in order to get good service delivery. In line of the above background, the study was carried out to evaluate the assessment of staff development programs on the performance of non- academic staff in ABU Zaria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Even though vice-chancellors are actually aware of the benefits of staff development, numerous problems continue to bedevil staff development practices in the universities in Nigeria. Crucial among them are limited availability of staff development programmes like seminars, in-service training, conferences and workshops; scarcity of time and financial resources in relation to their individual needs; poor attitudinal problems and lack of co-operation on the part of university managers and acceptable qualification of facilitators. In other words, the number and quality of staff development programmes in the university are wanting. Financing staff development programmes presently is a big challenge to non-academic staff and university managers.
Global competition has increased the need for efficiency and productivity, one way to meet this challenge is the need for training and development of employees on a continuous basis. There is need to relate training more closely to organizational goals and specific needs. Recognizing that training and development should be a process, organization must provide training institutions that address several critical requirements.
Non-academic staff of university, mostly find it difficult to accurately deliver what they are expected to achieve in their various units of the university due to the insufficient professional toward their career there by find it difficult to attend conference, seminars, workshops and acquire higher degree or qualification for the good service delivery in their respective units department and faculties respectively.
The problem of this study is to examine how Staff Development programmes can enhance performance of senior and junior of non- academic staff of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. That is why this study is being embarked upon based on the organization and conduct of conferences; workshops; seminar and in-service training for non-academic staff of the universities. This is because the quality of any system depends on the quality of staff. If staffs are well trained, their working skill will improve. It is against this background that this study was set to assess staff development programmes of non- academic staff in Ahmadu Bello University Zaria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study was set to achieve the following objectives:
- determine the organization and conduct of conference for non-academic staff in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria;
- find out the organization and conduct of workshop for non-academic staff in
Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria;
- examine the organization and conduct of seminars for non-academic staff Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria; and
- assess the organization and conduct of in-service training for non-academic staff in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the conduct of the study;
- How does Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria organize and conduct conference for non- academic staff?
- How is workshop organized and conducted for non – academic staff in Ahmadu
Bello University, Zaria?
- What is the process for organization and conduct of seminars for non – academic staff in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria?
- How is in-service training organized for non-academic staff in Ahmadu Bello
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are raised in order to test the validity of the answers given to the research questions;
H01: There is no significant difference in the opinions of registry, bursary and Institute of Information and Communication Technology on organization and conduct of conference for non-academic staff in the A.B.U Zaria.
H02: There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on organization and conduct of workshop for non – academic staff in the A.B.U Zaria.
H03: There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on organization and conduct of seminar for non – academic staff in A.B.U. Zaria.
H04: There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on organization and conduct of in-service training for non- academic staff in A.B.U Zaria.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study adopted the following assumptions have been brought forward:
- It is assumed that higher academic qualifications improve performance of nonacademic in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
- Constant training, conferences and workshop improve performance of non-academic staff.
- It is also assumed that development programme improves the performance of nonacademic staff.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Staff development programme has become a central function for both academic and non-academic staff management in improving overall level of productivity after preservice training. The significance of this study is based on the research findings that it will benefit the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, and other universities‘ community in Nigeria on how staff development programme has impacts on non-academic staffs‘ effectiveness. Researchers who are keen on furthering their studies on different aspects of staff development programme will rely on this study as a databank. Furthermore, staff development being a key function of university management, research finding on how to improve staff development will benefit staff advisory and universities. Besides, the government and NUC in particular, who are keen on enhancing staffs‘ productivity, are likely to find this study precious for policy formulation and implementation purposes. It will also be relevant to other tertiary Institution in Nigeria who have different component of staff. The study will be crucial to educational administrators of various departments. Also to non-governmental organization who make partnership with education to improve performance of their staff.
However, given the increased technological development and the competition challenges failing organization and the need to meet these challenges coupled with the desire to ensure efficiency, it is imperative that the study will be relevance to training and manpower development and their impact productivity.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study covers only Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria and restricted to non-academic staff of the university, because the research topic has started clearly the location where it is to be conducted. Also Ahmadu Bello University has adequate and different categories of non-academics who work in all composes of the university, which gives the researcher upper hand for generalization. The study is delimited to junior and senior within the Samaru non-academic staff of A.B.U main campus specifically in ICT,
Registry and Bursary units of Samaru main campus.
ASSESSMENT OF THE MANAGEMENT AND CONDUCT OF DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES FOR NON-ACADEMIC WORKFORCE IN AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, NIGERIA