AN EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF JUNIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS
1.1 Background to the Study
The basic goal of every level of education is to effect fundamental change in the student. Teachers should use appropriate instructional aids that best suit certain objectives and result in results to facilitate the process of knowledge transmission (Tebabal and Kahssay, 2011).
Until now, issues concerning the impact of instructional aids on the student learning process have continually piqued the interest of educational researchers (Hightower et al., 2011). Furthermore, research on teaching and learning is continuously attempting to determine the amount to which various teaching strategies improve students’ learning performance. Surprisingly, the majority of students’ low academic performance is fundamentally connected to instructors’ use of inefficient instructional tools to impart knowledge to pupils (Adunola, 2011).
The instructor begins dialogue and leads pupils to think in specific ways as directed by instructional tools. However, whether the instructor authoritatively leads communication throughout the educational process or whether the teacher facilitates communication is a personal preference. Teachers’ use of instructional aids in sharing knowledge with students is seen as a factor capable of impacting students’ academic achievement at all levels of the education system (Tella, Indoshi, and Othuon, 2010).
Instructional aids are print and non-print materials used to provide information to pupils throughout the instructional process (Bradley, Mbarika, Sankar and Raju, 2005). Textbooks, charts, periodicals, newspapers, audio-visual, photos, recordings, slides, transparencies, and many more objects are included. The use of instructional aids in secondary schools has been extensively examined, and the findings show that the benefits of employing them are enormous. The incorporation of instructional aids in classroom practice is thought to improve instructional quality by developing student-centered pedagogies (Abdo and Semela 2010). Furthermore, according to Mateer, Purdom, Ghent, and Porter (2012), the use of relevant instructional media in the classroom is invaluable because it engages students, aids in knowledge retention, motivates interest in the subject matter, and helps to illustrate the relevance of many concepts taught and improves students’ academic performance.
Instructional aids can be teacher-centered, learner-centered, or a combination of the two. Teachers frequently favor things that make their jobs simpler depending on their beliefs, personal preferences, and discipline standards (Watson, 2003).
Some instructors feel that classes should be teacher-centered, with the teacher serving as the expert and authority in imparting material (Ahmad and Aziz, 2009). Nonetheless, teacher-centered aids are related with insufficient stimulation of students’ inventive capacities, intellectual thinking, memorization, fact cramming, poor information retention, and high reliance among business students (McDowell, 2001; Tanner, 2009).
Although teachers have the freedom to select how they educate their students, Chika (2012) comments that learner-centered pedagogy is an effective tool for enhancing learning accomplishment in business studies tests and the application of information and skills obtained.
Business Studies is taught in junior secondary school as one of the core disciplines that will help pupils to learn additional skills that are common and fundamental to all personal and vocational activities (Inyang, 1998). Every Nigerian’s everyday life is influenced by business activities as they work, spend, save, invest, travel, and play. It has an impact on jobs, income, and prospects for personal entrepreneurship. Business has a huge impact on people’s living standards and quality of life, as well as the environment in which they live and which future generations will inherit (Ekanem, 2008). Whether they work in the city or the country, all students will eventually confront the world of business. They must be prepared to do business with confidence and expertise.
According to Ikerionwu in Sola (2010), instructional aids are things or gadgets that assist the instructor in making a lesson more understandable to the student. Concrete or physical things that deliver auditory, sight, or both to the sense organs during education are also referred to as instructional materials (Agina-obu, 2005). Instructional resources are classified as audio or auditory, visual or audiovisual. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of instructional aids on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School Business Studies students.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
According to Odundo (2003), students of business studies who suffer a mismatch between instructional aids utilized during teaching and their chosen learning modes frequently believe that their learning requirements are being met utilizing a foreign language. Some students struggle to internalize the content presented as a result of the mismatch, resulting in poorer marks. Similarly, Zeeb (2004) finds that pupils whose learning styles are not matched with the instructional techniques adopted by teachers are less likely to develop an interest in learning. When a student loses interest in a topic, focus suffers and learning achievement suffers.
Business Studies, like other topics, frequently results in low student performance in national and international examinations. Many reasons led to pupils’ low examination results (Okebukola and Jegede, 1997). These issues include: the employment of traditional teaching methods such as chalkboards, obsolete textbooks, and so on; and the teachers’ inability to convey concepts to pupils.
Lack of requisite teaching abilities and competency Shortage of trained introductory technology teachers Lack of teaching materials and essential equipment
Students’ lack of active engagement in business studies
Another big issue that business students encounter is the difficulty to retain what they have learned. This problem is frequently produced by lecturers expressing themselves too much theoretically while students are passive listeners. Facts and concepts are memorized and regurgitated by students. These issues confronting business education teaching and learning can be addressed through the use of slide presentations, video presentation processes, and other interactive ICT software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment aimed at achieving specific instructional goals (Onasanya, 2002).
In this context, the purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of instructional aids on the academic performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Business Studies in Educational District V in Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of instructional aids on junior secondary school students’ performance in Business Studies. Other specific objectives are:
i. To investigate if there is any significant relationship between audio as an instructional aid and students’ performance in business studies.
ii. To determine the effect of audio visual teaching aid on students academic outcomes.
iii. To find out if the use of ICT enhances students’ learning in business studies.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study:
Q1: Is there any significant relationship between audio as an instructional aid and student’s performance in Business Studies?
Q2: What is the impact of audio visual teaching aid on students academic outcomes?
Q3: Does ICT enhance students’ learning in Business Studies?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
In the teaching and learning process, the use of instructional materials allows the learner to touch, smell, and taste objects. As a result, knowledge imparted to students at various levels of educational instruction should be well-planned and accompanied by appropriate instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. As a result, this research is important to students, teachers, curriculum planners, the educational system, and society at large.
Students would benefit from effective use of instructional materials because they would be able to learn and retain more information, thereby improving their performance in the subject. This is because, according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is the process of acquiring, retaining, and applying information, skills, habits, facts, ideas, and principles, and the only way to do so is via the use of instructional materials.
The research would aid teachers in improving their teaching efficacy and productivity. This is in keeping with Ekwueme and Igwe’s (2001) statement that instructors are the only ones who can ensure effective and appropriate use of instructional resources and hence support achievement. As a result, a teacher who supplements his education with suitable instructional resources will aid in the development of students’ original and creative thinking as well as their ability to be spontaneous and passionate. According to Oremeji (2002), any teacher who takes use of these tools and understands how to utilize them appropriately will discover that they offer an almost immeasurable contribution to education. He goes on to argue that instructional materials are extremely useful for importing knowledge, clarifying difficult and complex concepts, sparking cognition, sharpening observation, generating curiosity, and gratifying individual differences.
The research has ramifications for both the educational system and society at large. This is because when professors utilize instructional resources to consolidate their teaching and students learn well, the information gained has a beneficial impact on society. Students will be able to grasp how the economy works, analyze the government’s economic policies and activities, and perform better economically in their life and job choices.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The purpose of this study is to look at the impact of using instructional materials on improving senior secondary school students’ economics performance in Educational District V of Lagos State. The study is confined to the Educational District V of Lagos State due to time and funding restrictions. This is due to the fact that the researcher lives in this local government area and thus has a thorough understanding of the area and its surroundings. Furthermore, the study only includes S.S-2 students from senior secondary schools in Ogbomosho south Local Government Area.
1.7 Limitations Of Study
The only limitation faced by the researcher in the course of carrying out this study was the delay in getting data from the various respondents. Most respondents were reluctant in filling questionnaires administered to them due to their busy schedules and nature of their work. The researcher found it difficult to collect responses from the various respondents, and this almost hampered the success of this study.