INFLUENCE OF NIGERIAN FILMS ON CHRISTIAN ADOLESCENTS IN PENTECOSTAL CHURCHES IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
The study is an investigation into the ”Effect of Nigerian films on Christian Youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna state, Nigeria.” On the background that Nigerian films stimulate and propel youths to thick and act as they have seen. Nigerian films have become a silent tutor in many homes, it has turned into a subtle platform, where many young minds are defiled and besmirched, through extremely violent movies, horrific crimes scenes and uncensored display of sexual perversion which is against the norms, culture and tradition of Africans which advocates modesty and decency in dressing and character. The main objective of the study is to find out the effect of Nigerian films in the lives of Christian Youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna State.
In doing so, four objectives were formulated. To identify the moral effect of Nigerian films on
Christian Youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna State, identify the psychological effects of Nigerian films on Christian Youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna State, identify the social effect of Nigerian films on Christian Youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna State and identify the academic effect of Nigerian films on Christian Youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna State. Four research questions and null hypotheses were set and tested at 0.05 levels of significance. A survey research method was adopted and the population for the study is 13400. A proportional sampling technique was used to obtain the number of respondents from the sample size of 364 from three senatorial zones of Kaduna State. A structural questionnaire was the instrument employed to collect data. The researcher with help of one research assistant administered the questionnaire. A total number of 364 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents and 358 copies representing 98.4% were duly filled and returned. The data collected through the questionnaire was presented and analyzed using tables. In the analysis of the data: location, gender, age and qualification were the demographic variables analyzed with frequencies and percentages. Also, the items raised in the study to answer the four research questions were tested with means, standard deviation, independent t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The findings of the study were quite revealing. In the test of hypothesis one, the groups involved differed in their opinion on the moral effect of Nigerian films on Christian Youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna State. Hypothesis two, three and four showed no significant difference in opinion on the psychological, social and educational effect of Nigerian films on Christian Youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna State. The Conclusion drawn from the study indicates that Nigerian films have negative moral effect on the Christian youths and it also reduces interest in religious activities which exposes them to learn immoral behaviours. The recommendations from the study suggest that Nigerian films should be devoid if immoral acts but subtlety propagating the gospel through programmes that dwell on supremacy of Christ over Africa traditional gods and beliefs. There should be a censoring body that should include head of Christian bodies like Pentecostal Fellowship of Nigeria (PFN) to profile the film from professional Christian TV houses like Liberty film to encounter the available Nigerian films.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.Background to the Study
Cinema started in Nigeria in 1903. It was at the instance of Herbert Macaulay, a foremost nationalist who invited the Balboa and company who was than doing an exhibition tour of silent films on the West African coast to Nigeria. The films were shown at the Glover Memorial Hall, Lagos in august, 1903. The success of the Balboa venture paved the way for an influx of European film exhibitors to Nigeria (Miller, 2005). The colonial government took interest and brought in a lot of films. Film production, distribution and exhibition were restricted to Lagos where they competed with concerts and drama shows and the contents of such movies were highly censored. Gradually however, it fanned out to towns in the immediate hinterland of Lagos and beyond. As the country became more industrialized and urbanized, there was a need to establish, distribution and exhibition centers in these new areas and in no time, the branches of the distribution and exhibition companies had spread all over the country( Shary,2005)
Nigerian before Nollywood pioneers started creating films looked on to Hollywood for their form of entertainment. American films such as Lawrence of Arabia, the Manchurian Candidate, Mary Poppins, the sound of Music and West side story were popular films in Nigeria that people flocked to the cinema to watch these foreign American masterpieces. The creation of Nigerian films in Nigeria started around 1960s, this was the period that the first Nigerian films were created by historical filmmakers such as Ola Balogun, Hubert Ogunde, Jab Adu, Moses Olayia and Eddie Ugboma. They are considered the first generation of Nigerian filmmakers. These pioneers started the Nigerian films Industry in a country full of citizens that looked to Hollywood for their entertainment (Ogunbiyi, 2012). With the oil boom, more individuals who become involved in the production of indigenous films include Eddie Ugbomah, LadiLadebo, Ola
Balogun, and U.S.A Galadima among others who had been trained during the Colonial Film Unit (CFU) era (Ukadike, 2010). The Yoruba travelling theatre practitioners, seeing how successful the foreign films distributors and exhibitors were, and motivated by their audiences demand to do their stage plays to film Itam(2002). He further and said, they decided to produce their own movies. In 1979, the Nigerian film corporation was established to provide structural backbone for the development of the industry in terms of manpower training, marketing assistance and infrastructure.
By the end of 1980s, video films had become the strongest technological medium of popular culture and entertainment. First to realize its immense social and economic potentials were the popular musicians. Realizing how popular the drama series they sponsored had become, they transferred them to video. Owing to the fact that video cameras were very cheap and easy to carry and control. The filmmakers found a ready medium to work with these state actors, rallied to act out a story in imitating the vanishing theater tradition and everybody was back in business. The appearance of Nigerian films, plus its popularity point to its importance as a new medium for the production, dissemination and consumption of films as a form of popular culture, with its ideology and aesthetics (Baran, 2009). The success of the movies was an eye opener for other producers. Today, Nigerian films production is a multi-billion naira industry which provides a source of livelihood for many people both at home and abroad. The industry has also produced many “stars” as well as its own international events. Many Nigerian films have themes that deal with moral dilemmas facing modern Africans. Some Nigerian films promote the Christian faith.
Pentecostal is a movement within Christianity that emphasizes the gifts and manifestation of the Holy Spirit with the evidence of speaking in tongues. It has been described by many western scholars to be a very fast growing movement within Christianity.
In the 1980s, Pentecostals become active in the Christian association of Nigeria (CAN) founded in 1976. The association initially included only Catholic and mainline protestant, both by 1988 it incorporatedchurches associated with the Pentecostal fellowship of Nigeria in (PFN), aPentecostal umbrella group and the organization of African instituted churches (Ojo,2008)
The word Christian youths consists of two basic words “Christian and youth”. Christian refers to one who is devoted to Christ. It occurs only three times in the New Testament. In acts 11: 26, 26:28 1st Peter 4:16 and was used by the gentiles, since the Jews are still looking for the
Messiah. Such a one is recognized by the moral and spiritual fruits of his live (Matt 7:16-17). The test of a true believer is Christian character produced by the Holy Spirit in that person‟s life. A youth on the other hand is usually designated for such a one as identified by the teenage period of life, accompanying challenges and problems especially that of peer group pressure (Dzurbe, 2002). In relation to these problems, he further opines that in the just concluded century, there is a problem, but little more than there has been in any past times.
Nevertheless O‟ Donovan‟s book highlights some important characteristics of the youth as impression, ability, enthusiasm, energy and physical strength. These are also in line with Biblical categorization Proverbs 20:29. Since youths naturally look for outlet for these abilities, the Christian youth must be properly guided. He or she is inevitably faced with human changes and challenges that confronts other youth of our day. The challenges arose from social interaction from older and other cultural backgrounds and ideas (Dzurbe, 2002). Today, the changes observed in the African youth are tantamount to western influence and denotable culture imbibed through Nigerian films. As it is, a Christian youth is the one who has remembered his or her creator, while he or she is still young by repentance, conversion and faithfulness to the chosen ethics. Such youth is expected to respect elders, be an example to others and shine as light of salvation to the unbelieving youth around them.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Nigerian films often times channel wrong information toChristian youths, thereby causing abnormality in their lives. These films are deviating from acceptable success goals such as character formation, respectful, humility; instead, they impact social vices as success goals such as sexual crimes, drug abuse, violence and prostitution. Most of these films are rated for general viewing indicating that some Christian youths are seriouslyengagedin watching Nigerian films. The researcher, therefore observed the following problems: watching Nigerian impacts on the lives of Christian youths in no small measure; watching films that negatively impact the character formation of the Christian youths is seen as a norm; Nigerian films do not, in general terms, promote morality, especially in pursuance of excellent moral standard in our society and; negative effects of watching Nigerian films outweigh the positive in the life of the average Christian youths.
As each day passes, negative information continues to influence the way of their lives.The persistence of these vices is due to the effects of Nigerian films on the lives of Christian youths. Nigerian films have dramatic effects on the perception of youths whether they are conscious or unconscious of this. The fact remains that the society which we find ourselves shows that something is wrong with moral behavior of our youths today.In our present complex society, there is a great dependence on the Nigerian films such that Nigerian films have become a source of business transaction for some youths; most of them have viewing centers and shops where they sell Nigerian films which is part of self-employment. However, the effect of Nigerian films in shaping the Christian youth‟s attitude and behavior has become a subject of debate.
Nevertheless, Nigerian films messages effects attitude both for good and bad depending on the content of the message.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objective of this study is to find outeffects of Nigerian films in the lives of Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna state. Based on this, the specific objectives are to:
- identify the moral effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State;
- identify the psychological effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State;
- identity the social effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State; and
- identify the academic effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions are formulated to guide the study:
- What are themoraleffects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in
- What are the psychological effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State?
- What are the social effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in
- What are the academic effects of Nigeria films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State?
1.5. Research Hypotheses
The following are the null hypotheses for this work;
- There is no significant difference between the opinion of urbanand rural youths on moral effect of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant difference between the opinion of male and female Christian on the psychological effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant difference between the opinions of Christian youths of different age groups on the social effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State.
- There is no significant difference between the opinions of Christianyouths of different educational level on the academic effects of Nigerian films on Christian youths in
Pentecostal churches in Kaduna State.
1.6. Significance of the Study
The study will provide useful information to the students and researchers, Nigerian filmmakers, Parents, Leaders/Pastors of Nigerian Christian Youths, National Film and Video Censor Board on the effect of Nigerian Films on Christian Youths.
This study will serve as a referencing material to students and other researchers who will be carrying out research on related studies. The Nigerian filmmakers will benefit from the information contained here as a yardstick to measure their progress which could serve as a guide to correcting errors for a better future of their products and the society at large. The study‟s significance is also justifiable on the grounds that it will contribute largely to the understanding of the negative effects of some home movies in our contemporary society, which would spur filmmakers to improve on the quality and the contents of the movies produced by trying to adhere to national institutions that monitor the age ratings of various movies.
Parents will also become aware or be exposed to the negative effect of movies and how they can influence their children‟s viewing habits and monitor what they watch and the themes embedded in these movies. Resultantly, this would reduce the negative effects, as well as the cultural conflict caused by watching movies in our contemporary society. And parents will select and ensure that children watch only the movies specified for their various ages.
The study will help the Christian youths to be selective in terms of which films to watch where necessary. The study will be of help to Christian youths in recognizing the place of love to accommodate and tolerate each other in the school and the society at large irrespective of religion, cultural background and social status.The study will also be of help to the youths to make good selections of peer groups to mingle with.
The study will help leaders/pastors of Christian youthsto organize youth programmes in order to engage them.Also, the study will help the authorities of the National Films and Video Censors
Board to devise effective ways to curb crimes in the country as well as check the flooding of Nigeria market with vices films which have no relevance to our culture.
The study will also help individuals to see the need to watch educative films that will enable such individuals to perform better at the academic levels.This research work is significant because no research has been carried out on this topic at any level. Hence, the recommendations from the research work will encourage more academic investigations in the area of effects of Nigerian films on the lives of Christian youths more effective.
The result of this study will expose the dangers of youth‟s indulgence in television film watching the violence oriented background which can influence them to follow the last lane of crime and criminal tendencies. The study will serve as an eye opener to media practitioners, communication experts and government about the need to censor properly, the content of programmes, which television stations in Nigeria air as most of the programmes are capable of enhancing behavioural deviance among the Christian youths in Kaduna State.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study covers Christian youths in Pentecostal Churches in Kaduna State because the church has witnessed many cases of different kinds of deviant behaviour in the life of youths copied from watching Nigerian films. The State is chosen for the study because of its cosmopolitan nature where all groups of people with diverse languages, culture and religious practices and high number of Pentecostal Churches are represented. The heterogeneous nature of the population is suitable for the study, familiarity with the environment, fluency in the predominant language of the environment which is Hausa and the state has adequate number of population that will be used for the study, compared to other states in Nigeria.
INFLUENCE OF NIGERIAN FILMS ON CHRISTIAN ADOLESCENTS IN PENTECOSTAL CHURCHES IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA