EFFECT OF COLLATERAL AND ANALOGY TACTICS ON PRESUMPTIONS AND PERFORMANCE IN EVOLUTION CONCEPTS AMONG NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION LEARNERS NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA

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EFFECT OF COLLATERAL AND ANALOGY TACTICS ON PRESUMPTIONS AND PERFORMANCE IN EVOLUTION CONCEPTS AMONG NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION LEARNERS NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA   

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the impact of collateral and analogy teaching strategies on preconceptions and performance in evolution concepts among Nigeria Certificate in Education Students North Central Zone, Nigeria. The study adopted the pretest, posttest quasi-experimental control group design. Three groups were involved, the experimental group E1, experimental group E2 and control group. The subjects in the experimental group E1 were taught evolution concepts using Analogy Teaching Strategy, the experimental group E2 were taught using Collateral Teaching Strategy while the control group students were taught using lecture method for the period of six weeks. The target population for the study was made up of 1211 NCE III Biology students out of which a sample of 383 made up of 228 males and 155 females were randomly sampled after establishing their equivalence using pretest. The two validated instruments used for data collection were Unscientific Preconception Test on Evolution (UPTE) with the reliability coefficient of 0.69 and Evolution Performance Test (EPT) with the reliability coefficient of 0.76.  Five research questions were stated and four null hypotheses were used for the study. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis at p≤ 0.05 level of significance. Descriptive statistics were used to answer the research questions while ANOVA statistic was used to test the hypotheses on unscientific preconceptions and performance. Some of the major findings were: five types of unscientific preconceptions were identified among NCE III biology students; there was no significant difference in the unscientific preconceptions among students when taught using collateral and analogy teaching strategies but significant difference existed in the students taught using collateral and lecture in favour of collateral and also between students taught using analogy and lecture method in favour of analogy teaching strategy. Based on the findings it was concluded that NCE III Biology students learn evolution concepts better when taught using analogy and collateral teaching strategies than with lecture group. It was therefore recommended that Analogy and collateral teaching strategies should be used by teachers of Biology in teaching as they help to shift unscientific preconceptions students’ harbor and creates a suitable foundation for subsequent meaningful learning, of the concepts.

                                                   

 

CHAPTER ONE

THE PROBLEM

1.1       Introduction

There is a nation-wide anxiety over the fall in students’ academic performance in science subjects. This has been of great concern to science educators who have observed that learning science hardly follows the nature of science (Richard, 2001; Mohammed, 2013). What rather obtains in the teaching and learning of science in most schools is shallow rooted instruction which in most cases leads to superficial acquisition of knowledge that cannot be appropriately applied in and out of school situations. This according to Olatoye (2008) has rendered science learning difficult, uninteresting, and abstract and in some cases meaningless thus making the progress of science and technology in the country stagnant.

Biology is one of the science subject students study in both secondary schools and higher institutions in Nigeria. It is a branch of science that deals with the study of living things. Biology as a subject is of paramount importance to any nation including developing ones like Nigeria. Lawal (2011) stated that biology is a prerequisite subject for the study of many fields of learning that contributes immensely to the technological growth of the nation. These fields of learning include medicine, pharmacy, forestry, agriculture, biotechnology and nursing among others.

Science education researchers like Ogunleye (1999) reported that a number of concepts in biology including evolution, genetics and ecology contain topics which pose difficulty for biology students to understand. Also Maduabum (1994) and Jiya (2011) discovered that the major problem area of  teaching biology, that contribute to students’ poor performance is rooted in the difficulty in the nature of some of its concepts like genetic, ecology and evolution, among others. Chew (2004) believed that biology concepts can sometimes be difficult particularly when describing things that cannot be seen or abstract concepts that cannot be fully comprehended for the first time. Chew (2004) also reported that students have the notion that evolution concepts in biology are boring and require only memory work to get one through. Some students find evolution concepts irrelevant, while others find them extremely technical with difficult terms littering every sentence in a typical biology text. Usman (2008) stated that many students are said to have wrong perceptions about evolution concepts on the basis of how they were taught biology in schools. To further support Usman (2008), Kampourakis (2014) is of the view that one of the learner factors that affect meaningful learning in biology generally is the wrong perception of evolution concepts held by the students. Bernardo (2007); Ogonnaya (2011) and Kampourakis (2014) in their separate studies opined that biological science has more conflicts in the classroom with cultural and religious believes especially evolution concepts than any other biology concepts.

Evolution concepts are aspect of biology curriculum, which students of Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) study at 300 level (NCE Minimum Standard, 2012). It is however considered to be an abstract and difficult topic to learn. Its abstract and difficult nature has contributed to poor academic performance among the students of NCE

(Danmole & Femi-Adeoye, 2004). Evidence of the students’ poor performance can be

seen in the NCE III result on evolution course Bio 325 as shown in Table 1.

Table 1.1:       Results of NCE III Students in BIO 325 Evolution (2010-2014)

Year   Total No.   No. pass       % pass    No. fail      %  fail

 

  • 103 40             83       63           61.17
  • 130 49             69       81           62.31
  • 320 129            31      191          59.69
  • 208 63             29      125          69.71                     2014     220                 90             40.91      130          59.09

Source: Examination Office COE Minna, (2014).

From Table 1.1, students’ failure in evolution course increases which could be that students have unscientific preconceptions and limited knowledge on evolution concepts that needs to be overcome before their performance can be improved.

The studies of Bichi (2002), Usman (2008) have also revealed that the method used mostly in teaching science subjects (specifically biology) in schools is the lecture method. This method according to Bichi (2002), Malachy and Ononugbo (2006) simply promotes rote learning and memorizations which hardly supports conceptual understanding of the subject matter on the part of the learner hence continuous poor performance in evolution concepts. Therefore, there is need to look for better strategies that will help overcome students’ unscientific preconceptions and also to improve their performance in evolution concepts. According to Kampourakis and Zogza’s (2007) research has established that students in general enter their science classes with preconceptions about the natural world that do not align with scientific facts and that often cause a misunderstanding of the scientific concepts being taught. Hornby (2006) view preconception as opinion or conception formed in advance of adequate knowledge or experience, especially prejudice or bias. These preconceptions denote the ideas students bring into classroom before teaching is done. Dike (2008) therefore advocates for changes in instructional practices that would take cognizance of such preconceptions.

Studies of Krishnan and Howe (1994), Demircioglu, Ayas and Demircioglu (2005) identified that learners personally constructed knowledge may be different from currently accepted scientific views. Such views according to Demircioglu, Ayas and Demircioglu (2005) are referred to as alternative conception, preconception, prior conception, pre-instructional beliefs, intuitive ideas, naïve conceptions, untutored beliefs, misconceived notions and alternative framework. Read (2004) is of the view that preconceptions and alternative frameworks have been proposed as better terms for students’ personal views that are at odds with modern scientific theories. Although many preconceptions are detrimental to learning, there may be other preconceptions that are largely in agreement with accepted physical theory. Therefore preconceptions are the ideas that students have before coming into science class, these preconceived ideas may be right in line with scientific views as such will serve as the bases for new knowledge or experiences that can be built upon. Read (2004) added that if students’ preconceived idea is wrong that is, unscientific and not in line with scientific views, the preconceived idea needs to be corrected first before new knowledge can be learnt. This is in line with Hodge (1993) findings that preconceived ideas that are not in agreement with accepted scientific ideas or theory are referred to as misconceptions and must be corrected before new knowledge is learnt. Misconceptions are experiences encountered in daily life, traditional instructional language, teachers, misunderstandings of theory, mismatches between teachers and students knowledge of science. Eniayeju, Eniayeju and Lakpini (2004) described misconceptions as idiosyncratic personal ideas, erroneous belief or alternative views of scientific principles arising from teaching normal language usage, and everyday experiences of the world.

According to Lawal (2009) misconceptions are wrong notions of facts learners have on certain scientific concepts. She also sees it as mismatch in students’ intellectual development. Learning process occurs as observed by Cameron (2007) when students’ unscientific preconceptions or indigenous beliefs are contrasted with different conception encountered in the science classroom he/she alters the ideas by reconstructing the original schemata under the influence of the newly encountered schema. In other words, students modify or reject their original schema because it makes sense to do so.  

Okebukola (2002) confirms that the existence of unscientific preconception in the learner is clear evidence that new concepts cannot be learned as an alternative model that explains a phenomenon already existing in the mind. Okebukola (2002) called these unscientific preconceptions as preconceived notions and non-scientific belief. Okebukola (2002) stresses further that these unscientific preconceptions needed extra efforts on the part of the teacher to effect any correction in the learner. This is due to the dampening effects wrong (unscientific) preconception has on the learning of science. This is also in support of Wasagu’s (1999) observation that for several years now, scientific knowledge has not been an integral part of African social life because the minds of many Africans are loaded with power of witchcraft and superstitious beliefs in providing explanations to natural phenomena. An example is the replacement of indigenous reasons for recurrent infant mortality in a home by a scientific reason such as sickle cell. If a student who holds the “Abiku” or “Ogbanje” conception comes in contact with the sickle cell phenomenon in a biology class, the sickle cell idea is very likely to challenge the “Ogbanje” and

“Abiku” unscientific preconception. The result will likely be a discarding of the unscientific preconceptions with the plausible and intelligible scientific concepts. In addition to identifying students’ preconception, Zhou (2010) proposed various models and strategies to facilitate teaching for conceptual change.

In order to improve students’ performance, it has become necessary to seek for strategies that will enhance better academic performance among learners as well as overcome wrong conception of the content of science, biology in particular. Examples of these strategies according to Okoronka (2004) include analogy, concept mapping, problem solving, think and do, vee mapping, advance organizers, semantic networking, collateral learning, cooperative learning, among others. Analogy is a process of identifying similarities between two concepts, the familiar concept is called the analogy and the unfamiliar science concept is called the target. According to Treagust (1993), the goal of Analogy is to transfer ideas from a familiar concept (the analogy) to an unfamiliar one (the target). If both the analogy and the target share some similar features, an analogy can be drawn between them.

Ruhl (2003) also stated that analogy is a comparison of something unfamiliar with something familiar in order to explain a shared principle. Ruhl (2003) describes analogy like a bridge that spans the gap between what a teacher wants students to learn and what the students already know. An analogy builds on the framework of the learners existing knowledge so they are not starting from scratch. Lagoke (2000), Jiya (2011) in their separate studies revealed that a growing amount of research has shown that the use of analogy in science teaching and learning promotes meaningful understanding of complex scientific concepts, and also helps students to overcome misconception of science concepts that they may harbor. Foxwell and Menasce (2004), James and Schamann (2007), Diber and Duzgun (2008) reported that analogies are essential in human cognition, reasoning learning, communication, problem solving and they have profound broad effects on how the world is viewed and understood. Sani (2006) reported three benefits of the use of analogy as a teaching technique for abstract concepts. These include providing visualization of abstract concepts, helping to compare similarities of the students’ real world with the new concept and motivating the learner.

There are several strategies of Analogy that can be used by the science teacher, examples of analogy models include Zeitoun’s (1984) General Model of Analogy

Teaching (GMAT), Dupin and Joshua’s (1985) Four Phases Conceptual Change Model

(FPCC), Clement (1987) Bridging-Analogy (BA), Glynn’s (2007) Teaching-WithAnalogy (TWA) model. In this study, the Teaching-with-Analogy Model of Glynn (2007) adopted emerged as the best suited for use in colleges of education biology classrooms, because it focuses on the learner in class presentation of the analogy, and can be easily implemented and evaluated. Above all, it puts into consideration the prior knowledge of the learner, which constructivist like Miller (1989) believed that for meaningful learning to take place students involvement in integrating new information or knowledge with preexisting is necessary.

Another influential teaching strategy that may help students to correct unscientific preconception and improve performance in science learning is collateral teaching strategy.  Spindler (1987) and Wolcott (1991) explained that teaching science is viewed as cultural transmission and learning science as culture acquisition. According to NB (2007), culture is the accumulated habits, attitudes and beliefs of a group of people that defines their general behaviour and way of life. Looking critically at the influence of cultural background on learning science, it becomes important for science teachers and biology in particular, to address learner’s background issues like language, customs and experiences that students from different communities bring to science classroom. Thus, biology teachers are faced with increasing complex problems of creating a suitable learning situation for biology students with varied cultural backgrounds especially when teaching topics like evolution that has to do with beliefs on how life originated.

Igbokwe (2009) stressed that the problem is further complicated by the fact that most of Nigeria’s classroom today are made up of children of varied cultural background and diverse world-views. The implication of this is that students can interpret the same science phenomena in different ways depending on their cultural belief or their worldview of the phenomena. Abonyi (2002) stated that the current approaches to science instruction in Nigeria have been criticized as being incapable of bridging the gap between the initial background of the learner and the new field of knowledge. Learning science involves negotiating meaning, comparing what is known to new experiences and resolving discrepancies between what is known and what seems to be implied by new experiences.

In Africa, there is conflict between some of the students’ everyday life and the world of science. This is even more in Nigeria where there are large numbers of ethnic groups. Modo (2002) reports that the Nigerian society is made up of over350 ethnic groups each with its own different belief and cultural practices that mark it out as a unique entity. The believes and cultural practices according to Jegede and Okebukola

(1993) influences students’ attitudes, thoughts, behavior and consequently, the desire to study and learn science.

Glens (1999) noted that one of the major influences on science education identified by students in developing countries is their feeling that school science is like a foreign culture to students. Their feelings according to Aikenhead (1997) stems from the fundamental differences between the culture of science class room and their indigenous cultures. Interestingly, Costa (1995) stated that a number of students in industrialized countries share this feeling of foreignness as well. Cultural clashes between students’ lifeworld and the world of science classroom challenge science educators who embrace science for all; hence they advocate the need for an emerging priority for the 21st century to develop culturally sensitive curricula and teaching methods that reduce the foreignness felt by students. The effectiveness with which students move between their life-world culture and the culture of science or school science depends on the assistance students receive in making those transitions easier.

Ogawa (1995), Jegede (1995), Sutherland and Dennick (2002), Akuma (2005) suggested that collateral teaching strategy is a means of resolving problem of conflict between culture and science as it attempts to help students cope with science learning without doing violence to their particular cultural beliefs, norms and experiences. Ogawa (1995) also added that collateral teaching is a strategy that enables learners to understand science concepts while maintaining their world view. The task of science teaching is to help all children acquire scientific knowledge, interest, skills, attitudes and ways of thinking without violating their cultural believes and experience. Jegede (1997) is of the opinion that collateral teaching strategy is the cognitive explanation of border crossing.

Border crossing, according to Aikenhead (1996) involve students’ experiences with school science in terms of students’ “crossing border” from the subcultures associated with his/her socio-cultural environments into the subcultures of science. In learning science concepts within a traditional socio-cultural environment,

Fakudze (2004) proposes a Collateral Teaching Strategy Model (CTSM) which was the combination of three theoretical constructs, of Aikenhead’s (1996), Border

Crossing; Jegede’s (1995) Collateral Learning, and Oguniyi’s (1995) contiguity learning. The CTSM uses the information processing model depicted by Eggen and Kauchak (1994) and Johnstone (1997) as its basic framework. The CTS can be used to describe how a scientific concept presented in a science classroom is learned or rejected by a student. In this study analogy and collateral teaching strategies are employed to teach evolution concepts.

Considerable amount of research focused on gender differences in school science learning. Abudraheem (2012) reported that one of the most topical issues in current all over the world has been that of gender differences and academic performance among students in schools. Over the years, there has been a growing awareness of the role of a woman at home, in schools and community in general. Duniya (2009) opined that gender issues in science education as it affects performance remains unresolved. However, worries have equally been expressed about the role of women in the political, social, cultural, psychological, economic, spiritual, science and technological development of nations.

Lentz (1992), Lagoke et al. (1997), Usman (2000) and Mohammed (2011) in their individual -studies noted that boys performed better than girls on activities that require manipulations and also boys are more mechanically and scientifically inclined than girls. Olorukooba, Lawal and Jiya (2012) also revealed that there is a significant difference in the performance and retention of male and female students in favour of the male students at NCE level when taught using analogy teaching strategy.

However others like Mari (1994) observed that female students performed better on their understanding of science process skills than male students. Also, Klainin, Fenshaim and West (1989) reported that the performance of girls is significantly better than that of boys in chemistry and physics in Thailand. Driver (1980) reported higher achievement of girls in mathematics and physical sciences than boys while Bichi (2002), Danmole and Femi-Adeoye (2004) in their separate studies found that there are no gender differences in performance in science. From these studies, there is no conclusive statement on gender related issues investigated by the researchers and the studies cited concentrated in teaching method, attitude among others at SSS level. This study therefore seeks to investigate the impact of analogy and collateral teaching strategies on unscientific preconceptions and academic performance in evolution concepts in terms of gender.

1.1.1    Theoretical Framework

The theoretical basis guiding the study of analogy and collateral teaching strategies to teach concepts of evolution is the cognitive constructivism theory of Ausabel meaningful learning. The constructivist model sees the learner as coming into learning not as complete blank slates upon which knowledge is written, but rather sees the learner as coming into learning with already formulated knowledge ideas and understandings.

The previous knowledge becomes the raw materials for the new knowledge to be created.

As such learning in the constructivist model says that the learner compares new information taught to him/her to the knowledge and understanding he or she already has of the same phenomenon.  This study of analogy and collateral teaching strategies relates with constructivist model that put into consideration students prior knowledge as foundation for subsequent learning that is new science concept to be learnt

David Ausabel is a cognitive psychologist who studied learning theory. Ausubel is credited with the learning of advanced organizers. Ausubel believes that meaningful learning is crucial for classroom instruction. Meaningful learning, according to Ausubel, entails new knowledge that relates to what one already knows and that can easily be retained and applied. According to Ausubel (1963), meaningful learning takes place only when the learners’ prior knowledge is related to the new materials to be learnt. Advance Organizer entails the introductory materials with high level of generality that introduces new materials and facilitates learning by providing an anchoring idea to which the new idea can be attached. Cognitive theorists believe that it is essential to relate new knowledge to existing information learned. Teachers can facilitate learning by organizing information presented so that new concepts are easily relatable to concepts already learned.

The overarching ideas in Ausubels theory is that knowledge is hierarchically organized and that new information is meaningful to the extent that it can be related to what is already known. Since science is learning by doing, the body of knowledge to be taught to the learner must be well structured to incorporate learners’ prior knowledge. This implies that teachers of science should be able to effectively link and bridge the gap between the body of knowledge the learner possesses and the new materials to be learnt or introduced. Where such links do not exist, rote learning is the result. Ausubel was able to differentiate between rote and meaningful learning. Meaningful learning occurs only when the learner has mental representation of an object or concept to be learnt.

Therefore, the theory of Ausubel was adapted for this study.

Yager (1995) suggested that use of analogy and collateral teaching strategies could help students to build meaningful relations between what they already know and what they are setting out to learn. In general, activity of building relations plays a critical role in constructivist views of learning science, thereby involving students in the construction of knowledge and the creation of new ideas from what they already know. This activity builds relationship between existing knowledge and new knowledge and plays an important role when interpreting students learning as a process of conceptual change (Demanstes, Good & Peebles, 1996). These theoretical speculations about the role analogy and collateral plays in conceptual change set the stage for empirical explorations of the contribution of analogy and collateral to conceptual change in science learning (Wushishi, 2006). According to Igboko and Ibeneme (2006), constructivism can be defined as processes where learners actively take knowledge, connect it to previously assimilated knowledge and construct own interpretation. Where the conception a learner already has is faulty, it is described as being erroneous. Studies according to Haslam and Treagust (1987), Lawal (2009) have shown that such erroneous conceptions or unscientific views have serious threat on learners’ understanding of scientific concepts. This study therefore was hinged on the cognitive constructivist theory and Ausubels theory of meaningful learning.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Several factors have been identified by researchers as being responsible for the persistent poor performance in evolution concepts among science students. Researchers like Bichi (2002), Greg (2007), NAS (2008) and Kampourakis (2012) in their separate studies, identified students’ difficulties in understanding evolution concepts. Some of the difficulties include misconceptions held about theories in evolution, controversies about religious bias and socio-cultural beliefs as well as teachers’ failure to use effective teaching strategies that would enhance the teaching and learning of the subject. According to Goldberg and Thompson-Schill (2009), Kampourakis (2014), evolution concepts are rather counter-intuitive ideas that generate unscientific preconceptions in students, make its theories difficult for them to understand, abstract in nature as well as having cultural and religious bias which has resulted in students performing poorly in evolution concepts at NCE level.

Further research studies by Hokayem and Boujaoude (2008); Athanasious and Papadopoulou (2011) on undergraduate students from various countries and religious backgrounds have also revealed that students often perceive conflict between their worldviews and what evolutionary theory suggests. Therefore, students fail may be as a result of teachers using ineffective teaching methods that cannot help overcome unscientific preconceptions and boost their performance in evolution concept. In fact, Treagust (1993), Greg (2007), Jiya (2011) and Ogonnaya (2011) stated that unscientific preconceptions and poor performance of students in evolution concepts may be overcome if the teacher provides a bridge (link) between the unfamiliar concepts (evolution concepts in particular) and the knowledge which the students already possess. Analogy and collateral teaching strategies has been found to enhance students’ performance. Both strategies put into consideration the prior knowledge of learners which is able to bring about meaningful learning as a result of students’ involvement in integrating new information with pre-existing knowledge. Specifically, this study seeks to investigate the impact of analogy and collateral teaching strategies on NCE III biology students’

unscientific preconceptions and academic performance in evolution.

 

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study are to examine the impact of analogy and collateral teaching strategies on identified unscientific preconceptions and academic performance in evolution concepts among NCE III biology students. The study has the following objectives to:

  1. identify the unscientific preconceptions in evolution concepts held by NCE III biology students;
  2. determine the impact of analogy, collateral teaching strategies and lecture method on unscientific preconceptions in evolution concepts among NCE III Biology students;
  3. determine the impact of analogy, collateral teaching strategies and lecture method on academic performance in evolution concepts among NCE III biology students;
  4. find out the impact of analogy, collateral teaching strategies and lecture method on identified unscientific preconceptions in evolution concepts among male and female NCE III biology students; and
  5. determine the impact of analogy, collateral teaching strategies and lecture method on academic performance in evolution concepts among male and female NCE III biology students.

 

1.4       Research Questions

The study seeks to answer the following research questions:-

  1. What are the common unscientific preconceptions NCE III biology students hold on evolution concepts?
  2. What is the difference in the unscientific preconceptions score in evolution concepts among NCE III biology students taught using collateral, analogy teaching strategies and those taught using lecture method?
  3. What is the difference in the mean scores in evolution performance test among NCE III biology students taught using analogy, collateral teaching strategies and those taught using lecture method.
  4. What is the difference in the unscientific preconceptions score in evolution concepts between male and female NCE III biology students taught using collateral, analogy teaching strategies and those taught using lecture Method?
  5. What is the difference in the mean scores in evolution performance test between male and female NCE III biology students taught using collateral, analogy teaching strategies and those taught using lecture method?

1.5       Null Hypotheses

Research questions 2-5 converted to 1-4 Null hypotheses were tested in the course of this study at p≤0.05 levels of significance:

H01: There is no significant difference in the unscientific preconceptions mean scores in evolution concepts among NCE III biology students taught using collateral, analogy teaching strategies and lecture Method.
H02: There is no significant difference in the mean scores in evolution performance test among NCE III students taught using collateral, analogy teaching strategies and those taught using lecture method.
H03: There is no significant difference in the unscientific preconception mean scores in evolution concept between male and female NCE III biology students taught using collateral, analogy teaching strategies and those taught using lecture method.
H04: There is no significant difference in the mean scores in evolution performance test

between male and female NCE III biology students taught using collateral, analogy teaching strategies and those taught using lecture method.

 

1.6       Significance of the Study

The main objectives of this study are to examine the impact of analogy and collateral teaching strategies on identified unscientific preconceptions and academic performance in evolution concepts among NCE III biology students. The results of the study would hopefully uplift the standard of Biology education at NCE level in the following ways:

  1. It is hoped that the findings of this study would:

Teachers ii.  be beneficial to biology teachers in helping them select appropriate strategies for teaching evolution concepts most especially for students to overcome unscientific preconceptions they harbor from their cultural believes, and would thereby improve their academic performance.

  • provide teachers in training with knowledge of other strategies that can be used to teach evolution concepts in the classroom e.g. analogy, collateral, learning among others.
  1. help teachers in finding out the types of unscientific preconceptions NCE III students hold about evolution concept e.g. counter intuitive ideas, social cultural beliefs and religious bias.
  2. enhance professional development of teachers as it demands creative thinking in developing appropriate analogy and collateral strategies to suit a topic and formulate stories that rise sensory receptor of student to critical thinking. Students provide students with scientific explanations to the unscientific preconceived ideas and erase from their minds all hindrances to science learning that can lead

them into excellent academic performance i.e. through the mapping and sensory register in both analogy and collateral strategies.

vii. help students to see the relationship between their society and school science. Professional bodies viii. be beneficial to Professional bodies such as Science Teachers Association of Nigeria, National Association Science Education Researchers, UNICEF and other researchers may use Analogy and Collateral teaching strategies by organizing conferences, workshops and seminars for both teachers in training and practicing teachers of science on how analogy and collateral strategies could be effectively used to promote the teaching of evolution in schools, thereby incorporating such into their curriculum design and instruction innovation programmers in science.

  1. The finding of the study will also add new knowledge to the existing literature.

 

 

1.7       Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is as follows:

The study was delimited to eight (8) State Colleges of Education in North Central Zone, Nigeria. These colleges are fully accredited by National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) that governs these higher institutions of learning. The colleges are similar in terms of manpower and quality of staff since the board governing the institutions checks the facilities and manpower after every four years. The study was delimited to NCE III biology students of the eight (8) State Colleges of Education in north central, Nigeria, because this level of students study Bio 325 Evolution concept.

The concepts taught include:

Adaptative radiation

Mutational changes as the causes of evolutionary change

Origin of life

Fossil and human evolution

Darwin’s theories of natural selection, competition, survival of the fittest and struggle for existence.

These topics have been identified to be abstract and difficult to understand thereby causes intuitions that generate unscientific preconceptions (NCCE, 2012). The model of Analogy that was used for this study is Teaching-with-Analogy adapted from Glynn, (2007) and

Collateral Teaching Strategy Model adapted from Fakudze, (2004).

 

1.8       Basic Assumptions

The following assumptions were made for the study:

  1. Analogy and Collateral teaching strategies are not commonly used in teaching the concepts of evolution in the selected colleges.
  2. Socio-cultural beliefs (preconceptions) exist among students about evolution concept which may negatively affect their learning of science effectively.
  3. That the Analogy, Collateral Strategies and lecture method are appropriate for teaching the topics in evolution concepts

EFFECT OF COLLATERAL AND ANALOGY TACTICS ON PRESUMPTIONS AND PERFORMANCE IN EVOLUTION CONCEPTS AMONG NIGERIA CERTIFICATE IN EDUCATION LEARNERS NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA   

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