EFFECT OF SOCRATIC QUESTIONING METHODS ON EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF UPPER BASIC SCIENCE PUPILS OF DIVERSE COGNITIVE STYLES, ZARIA EDUCATION-ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
This study titled Effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Upper Basic Science students of Different Cognitive Styles in Environmental Hazard Concept in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The Design of the study was Quasi-Experimental design. The population comprised all the 18,508JSS2 Basic Science Students from 37 public secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone. Sample of 297 students from four randomly selected coeducational schools were used for the study. The Experimental Group was taught the concept of Environmental Hazard using Socratic Questioning Technique while the Control Group was taught the same concept using Lecture Method. A validated Instrument called Basic Science Performance Test (BSPT) and Alternative Uses Test (AUT)with a reliability coefficient of 0.79 and 0.81 was used for the data collection. Five research questions and five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. ANOVA, ANCOVA, and Independent t-test statistics were used to test the null hypotheses at P <0.05 level of significance. Findings among others revealed that there is statistical significance difference between the Experimental and Control group in favor of the experimental group, the findings also revealed that there is statistically significant difference between the convergent and divergent students in the experimental group. The researcher thus concluded that Socratic Questioning Technique was found to be helpful in changing students‟ performance. It was therefore recommended among others that Junior Secondary school Basic Science Teachers should endeavor to use the Socratic Questioning Technique while teaching to improve students‟ Performance in Upper Basic Science.
The importance of science and technology to national development in the life of any country cannot be over emphasized. This is because knowledge and skills in science and technology are very vital in the development of any society. Mulemwa (2005) points out that, the fast changing applications of science and technology and the global reliance on its processes and products in all areas of human endeavor have made them invaluable that any society or country without them risks being alienated from the global village. This means that for an individual to be well-grounded in science, and competent enough to face the challenges of life in his society, he or she must have gone through a science programme that is well planned, assessed and implemented. Shaibu (2008) expresses the opinion that Nigerian citizens should pursue Science, Technology and Mathematics Education (STME) to prevent Nigeria from being perpetual slave to the developed world. Science is a great enterprise which nation depends on in order to advance technologically Nwagbo and Chukelu (2011). Scientists work with great care, using their hands and brains, as well as complex equipment to carry out research in order to make discoveries and inventions. To do these effectively, they use materials safely and efficiently (Obeka, 2011). Science education as described by Pember and Humbe (2009) as a process of teaching or training especially, in school to improve one‟s knowledge about one‟s environment and to develop one‟s of systematic enquiry as well as rational attitudinal characteristics. Scientific knowledge endows humanity with power which them to exert their will over nature to create resources, conquer and uplift the quality of life.
A history of science teaching has its root in primary schools when Nature study, Hygiene,
Agric and domestic science featured promptly. General science emerged in the late 30s was referred up to the primary school certificate and the first two years in the secondary. Science teaching took up from there and undergoes several modifications until 1982 when it became Integrated Science taught in the secondary school. In 2009 the nomenclature of integrated science was changed to basic science and broken into Lower, Middle, and Upper Basic Science covering primary 1-3, 4-6 and JSS 1-3 respectively. The change to basic science of 9years, 3years senior secondary and 4years tertiary is a policy and not a system. The country still maintains the system of 6-3-3-4 (9-3-4). Basic Science is one of the subjects taught in Nigerian Junior Secondary Schools. It is a subject meant to provide a solid foundation for the Senior Secondary Science subjects like Biology, Chemistry and Physics (Gadzama, 2012). It is a subject rooted from integrated science which is developed by the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) in the 1970‟s with the aim of providing an integrated approach to the teaching of science, stressing the fundamental unity of its branch disciplines. However, observations from the Basic science classrooms reveal that most teachers do not adopt instructional techniques and strategies that could stimulate students‟ creativity and performance (Olorukooba & Lawal, 2010). Basic Science pedagogy like in any other science subject revolves around the practical, but the theoretical teaching and rhetoric learning within the contemporary Nigerian classrooms have become obstacles in the bid to transform the knowledge of Basic Science into achievements (Banfe, 2013).
Basic science was introduced into the Nigerian Secondary School as a core subject at the junior secondary school level in 2006 (Eggari, Kukwui, Mahmuda, &Sambo, 2014). The aim of that basic science curriculum was to introduce students to the world of science and to prepare them for higher education in science and technology. Basic science is taught in all junior secondary schools in Nigeria as a course of study which is devised and presented in such a way as to enable the students gains concept of the fundamental unity of science, the commonality of approach to problem of scientific nature and help student to gain an understanding of the roles and function of science in everyday life and the world in which they live (Sambo, 2012). Basic science incorporates the study of elementary biology, anatomy, ecology, genetics, chemistry and physics into one integrated science subject and taught in the junior secondary schools in Nigeria (Omiko, 2016). It is the bedrock of advance studies in the field of science, technology and Engineering. Therefore, Basic Science become fundamental to every science subject and to this effect, suitable technique and approach should be given to prepare learners to study science at higher level. It‟s from this tenet that this study seeks to find the Effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic Science Students of different Cognitive Styles, Zaria Education-Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
This thesis is an effort to connect philosophy to education. It focuses on the Socratic Questioning Technique, a teaching and learning approach extrapolated from Socrates conversations with his interlocutors in Plato‟s works. By explaining and relating the method to studies in cognitive science, developmental psychology, and education.
The Socratic Technique is teaching by questioning whereby answers and discussions are used to elicit the expected learning. Here the teacher leads and guides the students to express their opinions and ideas with the view to find answers to problems collectively. Eisner (2002) explained that the discussion method works on the principle that the knowledge and ideas of several people are more likely to find solutions or answers to specified problems or topics. This is in line with the saying that, two good heads are better than one. Discussion teaching engages both the teachers and students in thinking. It also develops in student‟s social skills of talking and listening. The Socratic teaching Technique encourages active participation. It requires the students to critically evaluate their own beliefs. It requires them to articulate reasoned concepts behind their beliefs. Socrates believed that teachers should not lecture.
They should tap into the knowledge that lies deep within everyone.
Some of the advantages of the method is that it allows for sharing of ideas by students, development of social skills of talking and listening, clarification of ideas and promotion of team work. Teaching method are patterns of teacher behavior that occur either simultaneously or in sequence in a verified way. Choosing specific teaching methods that best achieves course objectives is one of the most important decisions a teacher faces. Knowing what methods are available and what objectives each method is best suited for, help teachers make this decision more easily. It is against this background that this study seeks to Effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic Science Students of different Cognitive Styles, Zaria Education-Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Academic Performance as observed by Shaibu (2017) is the exhibition of knowledge attained or skills developed by a student in a subject designed by test scores assigned by teachers. It is influenced by a number of factors such as teaching method, class size, qualification and experience of science teachers, and instructional materials available among others (Salisu,
2016). According to Achino (2002), academic performances is the level of individual‟s growth in a test when compared with the scores of others of the same level. Several instructional strategies such as problem-solving, cooperative learning, concept- mapping and inquiry methods among others have been devised over the years with the hope of improving students‟ performance. It is best on this premise that this study seeks to find out the Effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic Science Students of different Cognitive Styles, Zaria Education-Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
The concepts of cognitive stylesarise from the fact that individual differences exist as a result of differences in the psychological functioning of person, including the selection and recall of information from memory (Daniel, 2002) Study of cognitive styles has become a broad stream in cognitive psychology and mathematics education. Individuals display their own personal cognitive styles which is a major attribute in what makes an individual to respond to various situations (Anastasi, 1996: Musya 2015). Cognitive style is a term used to describe the way individuals perceive, think and remember information (Lusweti, Kwena & Mondo, 2018). Douglass (2003) found that as many as nineteen (19) different ways of describing cognitive styles have been identified over the years, all of which consist of bipolar distinctions of thinking and thought processing styles. Some of these distinctions are:
- The Converger – Diverger construct by Guilford (1956) ii. The Reflective – Impulsive cognitive style by Kagan, Rosman, Day, Albert, and
Philips (1964) iii. The Holist – Serialist theory by Pask (1976) iv. The Adaption – Innovation theory by Kirton (1976)
- The Ornstein‟s (1973) Hemispherical Lateralization Concept
- The Field Dependence–Field Independence model by Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, and
Karp (1971) vii. The Wholist- Analytic and Verbal –Imagery model by Riding and Cheema (1991).
Cognitive styles are the psychological differences between how people obtain information. They are defined as the indicators of how students perceive, interact with, and respond to different learning environments (Sankar & Raju, 2011). By understanding which cognitive styles an individual ascribes to, he or she can better prepare studying and learning methods to help them obtain the greatest amount of information. While each cognitive style is different, no one is better than any other (Sternberg& Li-fang, 2005). People all learn differently and understanding how each individual learns best will give that individual the best chance of success. Hence this study focuses Convergent – Divergent cognitive dimension.
A convergent learner is one who tends to look for unique methods and unique solutions. Such thinkers are noted for creativity or lateral thinking. A divergent learner is characterized by lateral thinking, creativity and capacity to see new combinations of ideas and to examine the possibilities of more than one way of doing things, leading to several outcomes (Guilford, 1959 in Adamu, 2018). Convergent thinking is the finding of a single best solution to a problem that we are trying to solve (Williams, 2013). Many tests that are used in schools, such as multiple-choice tests, spelling tests, math quizzes, and standardized tests, are measures of convergent thinking. Divergent thinking is the process to create several unique solutions intending to solve a problem. The processof divergentthinking is spontaneous and free-flowing, unlike convergent thinking, which is systematic and logical. When using convergent thinking, we use logical steps in order to choose the single best solution. By using divergent thinking, instead of only choosing among appointed options, we search for new options. Convergent thinking stands firmly on logic and less on creativity, while divergent thinking is mostly based on creativity. We use divergent thinking mostly in open-ended problems that creativity isa fundamental part (Williams, 2013). Divergent perceive concretely and think reflectively and imaginatively. Divergent thinking is related to fluency (i.e., the ability to produce multiple ideas in response to a task rapidly), flexibility (i.e., the capacity to consider multiple approaches to a problem), originality (i.e. The tendency to produce novel ideas in response to a task), and elaboration (i.e., the ability to consider the implications and consequences of ideas). Divergent thinkers tend to choose the liberal arts and humanities. According to Akbari (2011) convergent and divergent students can be identified easily by their areas of interest. That convergent student relies heavily reading and experiment to process information. Kolb (2008) stated the convergent and divergent students are very different in their learning style but they can both benefit greatly from working with one another.
It was suggested by Muhammad (2010) that convergent pupils tended to specialize in the sciences and classics, but divergent pupils may be good in arts, history and modern language.
Cognitive Styles regardless of their types, are different from ability which some believe to be a characteristic of intelligence. Whereas ability refers more to the content of cognition, cognitive styles help one predict how information is processed by each individual (Witkin & Goodenough, 1981: Adamu, 2018). A large body of researches suggest that students with different cognitive styles approach processing of Information and problem solving in different ways. McNally (1987; Adamu, 2018) asserts that learners are differentially prepared to learn. From an information processing point of view, the relative preparedness of a learner for learning about a given situation is determined by the amount of input that must occur before output reliability occurs. Some styles increase preparedness in one situation and others increase preparedness in other situations. For example, impulsivity/reflectivity is thought of as a style dimension. For studying books, the reflective student who takes information in and thinks about it is likely to do well in book learning. On the other hand, the impulsive student who is always seeking new stimulation, probably due to being low in arousal, is much better than the reflective in the jungle. It‟s from this tenet that this study seeks tofind out the Effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic Science Students of different Cognitive Styles in Rural and Urban Zaria Education-Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
School location is used to describe the geographical „position of a school. Many towns are usually demarcated by the socio-economic status of the residents and by the quantity of social amenities and infrastructure. Therefore, some schools are located in the urban areas while some are situated in the rural areas. Rural areas are geographic areas that are located outside towns and cities. Rural life is uniform, homogenous and less complex than that of urban centers, with cultural diversity, typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Urban areas are human settlements with high population density and infrastructure of a built environment. Ogunleye (2002) found out in a study thatschool location had a significant effect on achievement. Studies by Okereke (2011) showed that there was a higher and significant difference in achievement of students from urban and rural schools in chemistry. This was attributed to the disparity in resources between urban schools and rural ones. Anwar (2012), concluded that rural area students in Pakistan have lesser facilities and socioeconomic situations but have higher attitudes towards science than the students of urban areas with much more facilities and high socio-economic status. Most of these researches were based on the assessment of students‟ performances in the traditional classroom instructionalprocess that is mainly lecture oriented(Uju,2006). This study therefore seeks to Analyses Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic Science Student of different Cognitive Styles on Environmental Hazard concept in Zaria Education-Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
Environmental hazards are events or occurrences arising from interactions between natural, social and technological systems of the environment which are harmful to people and their possessions(Cutter, 2001). They are elements of the physical environment which are threats to man and are caused by forces extraneous to him (Oluwole & Oluwafemi, 2016).
Environmental hazards are generally classified into natural and man-made (Ragheb, 2014). Natural hazards result from natural conditions and sometimes products of negative consequences of interactions between man and nature. Man-made hazards are caused by physical, chemical, biological and technological operations of man. They are the usual consequences of high urbanization and industrialization (McMichael, 2000; Kotter, 2003). Examples of these hazards include earthquakes, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, land degradation, pollution, desertification, deforestation, wild-land fires, and loss of biodiversity (Al-Amin, 2013) among others. Environmental hazards and related risks occur in any sphere of human environment and at any locations where human activities take place (Hilary, 1999 in Oluwafemi, 216). The occurrences have been widely documented in both developed anddeveloping countries of theworld (Lenon, 2013). The effects of environmental hazards at any of these locations are devastating considering thedisaster cases experienced in the world.
It was long estimated that between 1975 and 1998, environmental hazards caused an annual death tolls of 9000 lives and over $300 billion in property and crop damages (Mitchell and Thomas, 2001). In recent times, the death tolls resulting from environmental hazards from 2003 to 2012 have an annual average estimation of 106, 654 lives and 96.5 million people were victims of such occurrences worldwide (Lenon, 2013). The developed world in particular is considered to be vulnerable to typical natural disaster occurrences (Levy and
Gopalkrishnan, 2010). Prominent disaster occurrencesin the regionscomprise the Hurricane Katrina in America and Heat Wave in Europe, among others (Farber, 2011). The situation likewise applies to the developing countries. For instance, disaster occurrences in Asia are more of geophysical and Oceania factors with recent events comprising the earthquake, cyclone Phailin and cyclone Utor/Labuyo in Thailand, India and China respectively (Lenon, 2013). In Africa, natural environmental hazards such as Global Warming, Flooding, Drought and Desertification are resultant effects of natural environmental variables such as elements of weather and climates (Amokaye, 2005). Nevertheless, there is also the prevalence of manmade environmental hazards, especially those that are products of living conditions and behavior of inhabitants (Afon, 2011). They are observed to have direct link with activities in urban residences. In Nigeria, environmental hazards and risks resulting from poor living conditions in the residential environments include presence of open site dumps, unkempt waste disposal facilities, overgrown lawns, electric generating plants, open drainages, location and conditions of sanitary facility, and indoor cooking, among others (Afon, 2011).
It‟s based on this premise that the study seeks to find out the Effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic Science Students of different Cognitive Styles in Zaria Education-Zone Kaduna State, Nigeria.
One major goal for reform in science education is to evolve a science oriented program for every child to participate actively and learn maximally irrespective of gender, socio-economic background and ability levels (Gadzama, 2012). There have been a number of studies on gender and academic performance in science. Researches on gender and academic performance such as those of Ibrahim (2012) and Olorukooba, Lawal and Jiya (2012) observed that boys achieved better than girls, but studies by Bunkure (2012) and Dahiru
(2013) pointed out that girls achieved better than boys. However, some others such as Ifamuyiwa (2003), Abdulganiyi (2017) and Yahaya (2017) revealed that male and female students do not differ significantly in their academic performance. It is against this background that this study seeks to find out the Effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on
Academic Performance of Basic Science Students of different Cognitive Styles, Zaria
Education-Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.1.1 Theoretical Framework
This study is hinged on philosophical thought of Socrates (470-399 BC) and Guilford theory of convergent and divergent thinker (1956).
Socrates (470-399 BC) proposed that participants seek and gain deeper understanding of concepts in the text through thoughtful dialogue rather than memorizing information that has been provided for them. He believed that students should be actively involved in their own learning; their morals and understanding of certain concepts should be challenged in order to make them think critically. He believed that disciplined practice of thoughtful questioning enabled the student to examine ideas logically and to determine the validity of those ideas. According to him, knowledge is possible but the first step to knowledge is recognition of one’s ignorance. He sought to get to the foundations of his students’ and colleagues’ views by asking continual questions until a contradiction was exposed, thus proving the fallacy of the initial assumption. He beliefs that all new knowledge is connected to prior knowledge, that all thinking comes from asking questions, and that asking one question should lead to asking further questions. When students make these connections, they are learning new material and relating it to what they already know (Dewey, 1916). Many educators today believed that the constructivist theory is a relatively new theory in education but the tenets of constructivism can be traced back to Socrates. Socrates was well known for asking his students question‟s that would stretch their minds and force them to think on higher level (Tredennick & Tarrant, 1993: Adamu, 2018).
Guilford (1956) was an early proponent of the idea that intelligence is not a unitary concept. Based on his interest in individual differences, he explored the multidimensional aspects of the human mind, describing the structure of the human intellect based on a number of different abilities. He proposed the concept of convergent and divergent thinking, when he noticed that creative people tend to exhibit this type of thinking more than others. He sees divergent learner characterized by lateral thinking, creativity and capacity to see new combinations of ideas and to examine the possibilities of more than one way of doing things, leading to several outcomes. He thus associated divergent thinking with creativity, appointing it several characteristics. Guilford believed that standard intelligence tests do not favor divergent thinking, working better for convergent thinkers. it‟s from this tenet that this study seeks to Analyses Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic
Science Students of different Cognitive Styles, Zaria Education-Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Basic Science is a solid foundation of science subjects but facing a lot of challenges especially in the performances of students in the subject recently. The objectives of teaching Basic Science in Junior Secondary Schools are to facilitate the acquisition of basic knowledge in science as well as the development of scientific attitudes in students (Gadzama, 2012). A lot has been done to improve the teaching of Basic Science in secondary schools in Nigeria. In spite of that students continue to perform poorly in the subject. However, a number of factors have been identified as contributing to the consistent poor performance of Junior Secondary School students in Upper Basic Science at Junior School Certificate Examinations (JSCE). Such factors include gross inadequacy or lack of instructional materials, poor utilization of instructional materials in classroom instruction and the teachers’ method of teaching among others (Olorukooba & Lawal, 2010; Gadzama, 2012). According to Nurudeen (2011), the statistics of grades obtained by candidate in the Junior Secondary School Examination Council (JSSCE) especially in Basic Science Examination in recent years is a course of concern. It was also reported by the Junior Secondary School Examination Council (JSSCE) Zonal Coordinator that 57% of Students that sat for the
Examination in previous years failed Basic Science. Therefore, the statistics of Basic Science
Students Performances in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination in Zaria Educational Zone and Kaduna State as a whole indicate rates of over 70%failure as shown in table 1.1.
Table 1:1 Students Performance Trends in (JSCE) results of Basic Science 2007-2017.
|Year||No. of students sat for JSSCE||No. of students that passed
|No. of students that fail||% ofstudent that passed (A1-C6)||% of student that failed (D7-F9)|
Source: Kaduna North Education Zonal Office (2018)
The poor performance in science has endured in spite of the various reforms and interventions by the government and the situation has remained a source of concern to science educators and educational experts. Presumably, the various strategies available may have failed to improve the performance. Studies has been done by Ibitoye (2001) and Adamu (2014) on the use of more effective teaching methods such as problem-solving, discovery learning, and hands-on activity among others. Therefore, it will be worthwhile to Analyses Socratic
Questioning Technique on students‟ performance in Upper Basic Science.
In the same vein, Cognitive styles has been used by researchers to investigate how individuals process information and make choices in learning science. Nwachuku and Nwosu (2009) opined that lack of attention by teachers in handling students of varying learning styles have been implicated as some key factors accounting for student‟s poor performance in biology in spite of the large enrolment. Study by Igwe (2002) suggest that learners with certain cognitive style are either facilitated or hampered by the particular teaching methods to which they are exposed. Muhammad (2001) pointed that students with field-independent cognitive style has higher academic performance than students with field-dependent cognitive style. Therefore, a number of instructional strategies such as demonstration method, inquiry method and problem solving among others have been employed by science teachers but there still the needs to t direct these strategies towards meeting the learning needs of Convergent and Divergent learners at the Junior Secondary School two (JSS II) Basic Science students to achieve better performance.
Consequently, from the foregoing, if students are left unchecked and the same poor result continues to refuse, the Nigeria‟s dream of technological buoyancy and subsequent development would be a mirage. It‟s in the light of the above situational problems that this study attempts to Analyses Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic Science Students of different Cognitive Styles in Zaria Education-Zone, Kaduna State,
1.3 Objective of the study
The study has the following objectives to:
- Find out the effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of
Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard Concept.
- Examine the effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of
Male and Female Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard Concept.
- Find out the effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of
Rural and Urban Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard Concept.
- Examine the effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of
Rural and Urban Convergent and Divergent Male and Female Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard Concept.
- Find out the effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard
Concept within the Experimental Group.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were formulated to guide the study:
- What is the difference between the mean Academic Performance scores of Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard concept using Socratic Questioning Technique and those taught the same concept using Traditional Lecture Method?
- What is the difference between the mean Academic Performance scores of Male and
Female Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental
Hazard concept using Socratic Questioning Technique and those taught the same concept using Traditional Lecture Method?
- What is the difference between the mean Academic Performance scores of Rural and
Urban Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard concept using Socratic Questioning Technique and those taught the same concept using Traditional Lecture Method?
- What is the difference between the mean Academic performance scores of Rural and Urban Convergent and Divergent Male and Female Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard concept using Socratic Questioning Technique and those taught the same concept using Traditional Lecture Method?
- What is the difference between the mean Academic performance scores of Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard concept using Socratic Questioning Technique?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are set to be tested at P< 0.05 level of significance:
HO1: There is no significant difference between the mean Academic Performance scores of Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard
Concepts using Socratic Questioning Technique and those taught the same Concept using Traditional Lecture method.
HO2: There is no significant difference between the mean Academic Performance scores of Male and Female Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard Concepts using Socratic Questioning Technique and those taught the same Concept using Traditional Lecture method.
H03: There is no significant difference between the mean Academic Performance scores of
Rural and Urban Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard Concepts using Socratic Questioning Technique and those taught the same Concept using Traditional Lecture method.
HO4: There is no significant difference between the mean Academic Performance scores of Rural and Urban Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Male and Female Students taught Environmental Hazard Concepts using Socratic Questioning Technique and those taught the same concept using traditional lecture method.
HO5: There is no significant difference between the mean Academic Performance scores of Convergent and Divergent Upper Basic Science Students taught Environmental Hazard
Concepts using Socratic Questioning Technique within the Experimental group.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings from this research work will tremendous help in the following ways:
Basic Science Teachers: The Teachers will benefit since the study will help them to understand the appropriate methods of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties.
Basic Science Students: The Students will be able to identify the effective technique influence, thereby making them cooperative for better performance in Environmental hazard concept.
Curriculum Planners: Curriculum Planners will take cognizance of the impact of Socratic Questioning Technique effectiveness hence enacting ways which will ensure that the lesson has been effective.
Administrators: Administrators will be able to see the extent to which the effectiveness of
Socratic Questioning Technique can influence the student‟s confidence and their performance there by encouraging them to put in more effort.
Professional bodies: Professional bodies such as STAN and MAN among others can be able to see the level at which Socratic Technique improved the Performance of upper basic science student. There by supporting the use of the technique in basic science classes.
Researcher: researcher formulates new knowledge to existing literature in Basic Science.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study focused on the Effect of Socratic Questioning Technique on Academic Performance of Basic Science Students of different Cognitive style Zaria -Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
The study will be carry out on JSSII Rural and Urban Upper Basic Science Students in Public schools in Zaria Education Zone and the schools are: GSS K/Kuyan Bana, GSS T/Jukun, and JSS Dakace and GSS Yakassai. The reason for the selection of JSSII students is that they are midway through the program to write their JSCE examination and the student are finding it difficult when encountered during the Examination. The following topics will be drawn from the Basic Science concept (Environmental Hazard):
- Soil erosion ii. Bush burning iii. Desertification iv. Flooding
- Deforestation vi. Depletion of ozone layer
The topics are used because of the dwindling performance of Upper Basic Science Students as only few Students had passed credit level (A, B or C), (D & E) with the majority having the lowest grades of fail (F) as indicated by Kaduna North Zonal Education office (2018).
Therefore, the statistics of Basic Science Students Performances in Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination in Zaria Educational Zone and Kaduna State as a whole indicate rates of over 70% failure as shown in Table 1.1.
The cognitive styles to be used in this research will be delimited to:
- Convergent; and
The Socratic Questioning Technique to cover are:
- What? ii. How? iii. Why? And When? Among Others. 1.8 Basic Assumptions
The research is based on the assumptions that:
- Junior secondary students will be familiar with Socratic Teaching Technique and can be able to apply it on convergent and divergent students in Upper Basic Science.
- Socratic questioning technique may be an effective teaching strategy at Junior
Secondary School Upper Basic Science.
- The schools to be used for the study will be Junior Secondary School representatives in Zaria Educational Zone.
- It will also assume that the Socratic questioning technique is appropriate for teaching the topic selected.
The selected topic is appropriate for the class (JSS II) used in this study.
EFFECT OF SOCRATIC QUESTIONING METHODS ON EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF UPPER BASIC SCIENCE PUPILS OF DIVERSE COGNITIVE STYLES, ZARIA EDUCATION-ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA