EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE PRACTICES OF RESIDENTS ON THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SOLID WASTE OPEN DUMPSITES AROUND UYO METROPOLIS

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EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE PRACTICES OF RESIDENTS ON THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SOLID WASTE OPEN DUMPSITES AROUND UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA IBOM STATE

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the evaluation of knowledge, attitude practices of residents on the public health implications of solid waste open dumpsites around Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom State. Survey method was adopted for the study. The target population adopted for this study comprised of all staff of Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency(AEPWMA). The sample size for this study was two hundred (200) respondents (staffs) selected amongst staff of AEPWMA. Simple Random sampling was used to choose the sample size for this study. The research employed primary and secondary sources of data. Primary data were gathered through questionnaires distributed among the Among the selected two hundred (200) respondent. The data gathered from the questionnaire were analyzed and presented in frequency and percentage tables. The data were also interpreted and the chi square statistical test was used to test the stated hypothesis. The result revealed that adoption of Proper  Waste management Practices significantly affect the environmental quality in Akwa Ibom State. The study recommended that awareness campaigns should be encouraged on the effects and implications of poor waste management practices in Nigeria.

 

EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE PRACTICES OF RESIDENTS ON THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SOLID WASTE OPEN DUMPSITES AROUND UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA IBOM STATE

 

CHAPTER ONE

GENRAL INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Solid waste management and disposal is one of the biggest issues modern man is currently experiencing because rubbish is seen everywhere and ruins the physical environment (Mudiare 2015). Annually, around 2,000,000 kg of  waste is created. These wastes are frequently discarded in open and unlined landfills, as well as in public waste bins along streets (Chima, Ezekwe & Digha, 2011).In developing countries, millions of people live without a waste management system, wide spread dumping of waste in water bodies and uncontrolled dumpsites aggravates the problem of generally low sanitation, which pose serious threat to the surrounding environment and are a health risk to the population, causing contamination of the drinking water and soil (Anthony, 2011).In sub-Saharan Africa, particularly Nigeria, refuse generation and its likely effects on the health, quality of the environment and the urban landscape have become burning national issues. In the same vein, waste management in Nigeria and other developing countries in Africa have remained chaotic in spite of both institutional and legal frameworks, and other interventions initiated to check the menace (Mudiare 2015). Major cities in sub-Saharan Africa are grappling with mounting heaps of wastes dumped indiscriminately. These wastes emanate from household or domestic sources, markets, shopping and business centers, schools, etc. Also pathetic is open defecation on roads, street corners, water channels and, haphazard dumping of hazardous commercial and industrial wastes (Anchor and Nwafor, 2014).

In Nigeria, like in other developing countries, open dump is the only available option for solid waste disposal in its cities. The depressions into which solid wastes are often dumped include valleys and excavations (Amadi et al., 2011).Proper waste management has remained a major environmental sanitation problem in Nigeria. This problem has manifested in the form of piles of indiscriminately disposed heaps of uncovered waste and illegal dumpsites along major roads and at street corners in cities and urban areas (Uba 2015). This problem is compounded by rapid urbanization and population growth which have led to generation of enormous quantities of solid waste which are often discarded by open dumping (Uwakwe,  2012). The main challenges facing  waste management in Nigeria include: inadequate funds to support waste management, inadequate equipment to support waste storage, collection and disposal, crude open dumping and burning without air and water pollution control (Binali 2014).The existing capacity for addressing the problem is low at all levels of government especially at the city level since solid waste management is the responsibility of the local government (ibid 2015). The problem is such that the United Kingdom Department of International Development through its State and Local Government Program (SLGP) supported the Nigerian Government on reforms of solid waste management (Sanusi, 2010). Agbede and Ajagbe (2004), reported that improper handling storage and disposal of wastes are major causes of environmental pollution which provides breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms and encourages the spread of infectious diseases as well as the generation of green house gases from landfills, health and safety problems such as diseases, spread of insects and rodents attracted by garbage etc. The poor sanitary condition brought about cholera outbreaks in London by killing more than 32,000 people (Water Aid, 2015).. The sanitary state of an area is largely influenced by the waste handling practices of the residents and the measures in place for safe waste evacuation and disposal (Mudiare 2015).

Open dumping of municipal solid waste disposal practiced by three fourth of countries and territories around the world is the major cause of environmental degradation and public health concerns in  Nigeria. These waste dumps may contain a mixture of generated waste and toxic infectious or radioactive wastes and are susceptible to burning and exposure to scavengers (Uwakwe, 2012). There are a number of major risks and impacts of the dumpsites on the environment. Air pollution from open burning due to emission of greenhouse gases, rats and fly infestation and nuisance effects are among the health and environmental impacts of poor solid waste management. In addition, scattering of wastes by wind and scavenging by birds, animals and waste pickers create aesthetic nuisance. In many dumpsites, the waste is directly increasing global concern over the public health impact attributed to environmental pollution particularly the environmental quality and human health risks associated with the waste dumps (Uba 2015). The World Health Organization estimated that about a quarter of diseases facing mankind today occur due to prolongeg exposure to environmental pollution and it seems to be the highest (Uwakwe, 2012). To determine whether to rehabilitate and close or remediate, upgrade and operate a dumpsite may require an environmental impact assessment studies. In countries like Nigeria where the number of existing dumpsites (both legal and illegal) are many, economic considerations of evaluation process must be taken into consideration in recommending a suitable approach or methodology (Uba 2015). Assessing the relative health and environmental hazards posed by the dumpsites existing throughout the developing countries help prioritize, plan and initiate dumpsite rehabilitation (Uwakwe, 2012).

The ever increasing global concern on environmental health demands that wastes be properly managed and disposed off in the most friendly and acceptable way, this is to minimize and where possible eliminate its potential harm on plants, humans, animals and natural resources (Mudiare 2015).

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

One of the biggest issues facing emerging nations, including Nigeria, is municipal solid waste management (Kumar 2016). The production of waste and the presence of man are intricately interwoven. Due to shifting lifestyles and consumption habits, many developing-nation cities are struggling to keep up with urbanization, pollution, and the growing amount of rubbish that results from these factors (Momodu, et al, 2011). There are concerns to both human health and the environment from the rising global rate of waste generation. Numerous problems exist, such as the inconsistent reporting practices of various nations and the lack of reporting by several nations (definitions and surveying methods employed by countries vary considerably). Due to its effects on both human health and the sustainability of the ecosystem, waste management is a critical issue.

According to Omotoso and Jegede (2009), solid waste generation in major cities has skyrocketed recently. In addition, they assert that for many Nigerian citizens, important highways have suddenly turned into dunghills. Additionally, developing nations encounter several common issues when discussing municipal solid waste management, such as inadequate or absent recycling methods and activities, restricted or ineffective treatment of hazardous garbage, etc (B; Abdelnaser, &Gavrilescu 2008). In underdeveloped nations where there are no institutional systems for Solid wastemanagement, there is a severe problem. Solid wastes are dumped alongside municipal waste in an open dumpsite, and this practise allows members of the community access to them, potentially resulting in an outbreak of infectious diseases (Alagoz, Kocasay, Abah, & Ohimain, 2010).

Researchers have asserted that lack of knowledge has a significant effect the waste manager strategies of residents in various nations.In a study carried out by  Audu A. Jatau  (2013) to determine the knowledge attitudes and practices associated with waste management in Jos south metropolis, Nigeria, using a self-developed knowledge, attitude and practices questionnaire, the author’s revealed that respondents with higher level of education had correct level of knowledge of the impact of improper waste management on health than those with lower level of education. Additionally, he found that understanding of waste management was statistically significantly impacted by education level. He advised that waste management regulations be issued and put into effect at all governmental levels. They also advocated encouraging people to participate in community-based initiatives that examine knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to waste management and promoting knowledge on waste management through workshops, seminars, and conferences.

Asiegbu et al (2013) carried out a study on the knowledge, attitude of refuse disposal in Abakiliki South East LGA. Twenty-nine women of child bearing age were interviewed using self-administered cross sectional questionnaire to ascertain their knowledge, attitude and practices of refuse disposal in Abakaliki. 10.0% of those surveyed disagree that sickness could be brought on by incorrect waste disposal. 10.0% do not agree that improper disposal can result in floods, while 17.2% believe that placing waste in bodies of flowing water is an acceptable method of disposal. This is concerning given that the respondents either completed secondary or tertiary education. To close these knowledge gaps, public education via radio jingles, seminars, and workshops is required.

It is therefore necessary for the researcher to assess the issues with solid waste management in Nigeria because there is still a sizable gap between policy formation, execution, and implementation that exacerbates the problem of solid waste management in Nigerian cities. The findings of this research will be used to improve the management of Solid waste in Nigeria. It will also provide empirical data to policymakers, researchers, and other interested parties in order for the country as a whole to build successful Solid waste management policies.

1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions led the investigation in order to reach the study’s main goal.

The following are the objectives that must be met in order to achieve this specific goal:

  1. What is the most level of awareness with regards to solid waste in Nigeria?
  2. What are the most common Solid waste disposal methods in Nigeria?
  3. What is the level of efficacy of Solid waste management systems available in Nigeria?
  4. Are there any repercussions for Improper  solid waste management in Nigeria?

1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES 

The outcome of this study is aimed  at increasing awareness about improve environmental waste management practices and to reduce in Nigeria.  . The study would present a comprehensive assessment of the most effective solid  waste management methods  and appropriate recommendations for improving solid waste management could be made. The relevance of the appropriate recommendations and suggestions made in the research to the will stimulate the development of comprehensive strategies to improve upon the current improper management of solid  generated  waste  in Nigeria.

The following are the objectives that must be met in order to achieve this specific goal:

  1. To determine the most level of awareness with regards to solid waste in Nigeria.
  2. To identify some of the most common Solid waste disposal methods in Nigeria.
  3. To assess the efficacy of Solid waste management systems available in Nigeria.
  4. To determine the repercussions of Improper solid waste management.

1.5     RESEARCH HYPOTHESES

Hypothesis

H0:     Adoption of Proper  Waste management Practices  does not significantly affect the environmental quality  in Akwa Ibom State

H1:     Adoption of Proper  Waste management Practices significantly affect the environmental quality in Akwa Ibom State

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE  OF THE STUDY

This study identifies gaps in Nigeria’s present  waste management practices when compared to international best practices and suggests ways to close the gap, taking into account the country’s current economic and technological realities. In Nigeria, this research will lead to a novel approach to  waste management. It would also alert governments and decision-makers to the necessity for  waste recycling in order to benefit tall and sundry. As a means of advising the government and all agencies responsible for environmental sanitation in Nigeria, this also specifies the necessity to ensure proper sorting, processing, transfer, transportation, care, and final disposal of solid waste in Nigeria. This research  proposes enhanced waste management strategies in order to lessen the negative effects of indiscriminate waste dumping on the environment and poor waste site management in the sector.

This research is important for institutions and stakeholders at all levels, as it identifies the current state of waste management equipment and makes suggestions for replacement or purchase of new equipment, as suggested by the WHO. This will aid in closing the gaps that have been found, as well as increasing the efficiency of solid waste treatment in Nigeria

This study is generally intended to provide information on the practices and attitude of residents in Nigeria towards solid waste disposal in Nigeria as well as examine the role of  waste management institutions in improving the current state of environmental degradation in Nigeria and to pique interest in the systematic control effort required for effective clinical waste management.

1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is focused on the evaluation of knowledge, attitude practices of residents on the public health implications of solid waste open dumpsites around Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibon State. The study focused on investigating  the Environmental impact of waste production and management in Akwa Ibom State. It was based on the analysis of data from selected staff of Akwa Ibom State Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency (AEPWMA).

EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE PRACTICES OF RESIDENTS ON THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF SOLID WASTE OPEN DUMPSITES AROUND UYO METROPOLIS, AKWA IBOM STATE

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