A STUDY OF GAS FLARE ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS OF RESIDENTS IN GAS FLARING COMMUNITIES IN SELECTED NIGER DELTA STATES

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A STUDY OF GAS FLARE ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS OF RESIDENTS IN GAS FLARING COMMUNITIES IN SELECTED NIGER DELTA STATES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

Title page ………………………………………………………………………. . i Declaration ……………………………………………………………………….  ii

Certification ……………………………………………………………………….  iii

Dedication       ……………………………………………………………………….   iv

Acknowledgement      ………………………………………………………………..  v

Table of contents        ………………………………………………………………. vi

List of figures ………………………………………………………………………. vii

List of tables ………………………………………………………………………. viii

Abstract           ………………………………………………………………………. x

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Knowledge ………………………………………………………………………………. 1

1.1.1 Gas Flaring ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1

1.2 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………………………… 2

1.3 Aim/Objective of the Study ………………………………………………………………………….. 3

1.4 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………………………… 3

1.5 Justification for the Study …………………………………………………………………………….. 4

1.6 Scope of the Study ………………………………………………………………………………………. 4

CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Air Pollution ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 6

2.2 Gas Flaring in Nigeria………………………………………………………………………………….. 6

2.3 Gas Flare Components …………………………………………………………………………………. 8

2.5 Cardiovascular System ………………………………………………………………………………. 11

2.5.1 Blood Pressure ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 11

2.5.2 Classification of Blood pressure ………………………………………………………………..12

It is classified in terms of age development. The adult classification is shown below 12

2.5.3 Factors Affecting Blood Pressure ……………………………………………………………… 12

2.5.4 Properties ofBlood Pressure……………………………………………………………………… 13

2.5.5 Measurement of Blood Pressure ……………………………………………………………….. 13

2.6 Pulse Rate ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

2.6.1 Importance of Pulse ………………………………………………………………………………… 14

2.8 Respiratory System ……………………………………………………………………………………. 15

2.8.1 Respiratory Rate …………………………………………………………………………………….. 16

2.8.2 Measurement of Human Respiratory Rate………………………………………………….. 16

2.8.3 Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) …………………………………………………………… 17

2.9 Empirical Studies ………………………………………………………………………………………. 17

2.9.1 Health Impacts of Flaring Gas ………………………………………………………………….. 17

2.9.2 Effects on Cardiovascular Health ……………………………………………………………… 17

2.9.3 Effect on Respiratory Health ……………………………………………………………………. 19

2.9.4 Effect on Cardiopulmonary System …………………………………………………………… 20

2.9.5 Other Health Impacts of Gas Flaring …………………………………………………………. 21

2.9.6 Effect on Haematological Indices ……………………………………………………………… 21

2.9.7 Risk to endocrine-reproductive systems …………………………………………………….. 22

2.9.8 Metabolic syndrome and Dermatological toxicity……………………………………….. 22

2.10 Gas Flaring effect on Cardiovascular Parameters …………………………………………. 22

2.11       Gas Flaring Effect on Respiratory Parameters ……………………………………….. 23

 

CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODS

3.1 Area under study ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

3.2 Study Population ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 26

3.3 Study Design …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique ………………………………………………………………… 27

3.5 Subjects Selection Criteria ………………………………………………………………………….. 28

 

3.6 Materials/methods ………………………………………………………………………………………29

3.7 Ethical Consideration …………………………………………………………………………………. 30

3.8 Statistical Analysis …………………………………………………………………………………….. 31

 

CHAPTER FOUR:RESULTS

4.1 Effect of flared gas on Systolic Blood Pressure of children residents in Edo State …

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 32

4.2 Effect of flared gas on Systolic component of Blood Pressure of adult residing in Edo

State       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33

4.3 Effect of Gas Flare on Diastolic Blood pressure of children residents in Edo State ..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 34

4.4 Effect of Gas Flare on Diastolic Blood pressure among Adults Residing in Edo State

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 35

4.5 Gas Flare effect on the pulse rate of children residents in Edo State ………………… 36

4.6 Gas Flare effect on the pulse rate of adult residing in Edo State ………………………. 37

4.7 Gas Flare effect on the respiratory rate of children residents in Edo State ………… 38

4.8  Gas Flare effect on the respiratory rate of adult residing in Edo State ……………… 39

4.9 Effect of gas flaring on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) of children residents in Edo

State       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40

4.10 Effect of gas flare on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) of adult residing in

Edo State ………………………………………………………………………………………………………   41

4.11 Effect of flared gas on Systolic Component of Blood Pressure(SBP)of children

residents in Rivers State …………………………………………………………………………………… 42

4.12 Effect of flared gas on Systolic component of blood pressure of adult residing in

Rivers State ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43

4.13 Effect of flared gas on Diastolic blood pressure of children residents in Rivers State

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44

4.14 Effect of flared gas on Diastolic component of blood pressure(DBP) of adult residing in Rivers State ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45

4.15 Effect of flared gas on Pulse Rate of children residents in Rivers State ………….. 46

4.16 Effect of gas flaring on Pulse Rate of adult residents in Rivers State ………………47

4.17 Effect of flared gas on Respiratory Rate of children residents in Rivers State …  48

4.18 Effect of flared gas on Respiratory Rate of adult residents in Rivers State………. 49

4.19 Effect of flared gas on Peak Expiratory Flow(PEFR) Rate of children residents in

Rivers State ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 50

4.20 Effect of flared gas on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate(PEFR) of adult residents in Rivers

State       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 51

4.21 Effect of flared gas on Systolic component of Blood Pressure(SBP) of children

residents in Akwa Ibom State …………………………………………………………………………… 52

4.22 Effect of flared gas on Systolic Blood Pressure(SBP) of Adult Residing in Akwa

Ibom State ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 53

4.23 Effect of flared gas on Diastolic Blood pressure of Children residents in Akwa Ibom

State       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 54

4.24 Effect of flared gas on Diastolic Blood pressure (DBP) of Adult residents in Akwa

Ibom State ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55

4.25 Effect of flared gas on Pulse Rate of children residents in Akwa Ibom State …… 56

4.26 Effect of flared gas on Pulse Rate of Adult residents in Akwa Ibom State ………. 57

4.27 Effect of flared gas on Respiratory Rate of children residents in Akwa Ibom State58

4.28 Effect of flared gas on Respiratory Rate of Adult residents in Akwa Ibom State 59

4.29 Effect of flared gas on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) of Children residents in

Akwa Ibom State ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 60

4.30 Effect of flared gas on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) of Adult residents in Akwa

Ibom State ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 61

4.31  Effect of flared gas on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of children residents in Bayelsa

State.      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62

4.32 Effect of flaredgas on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) of adult residents in Bayelsa

State.      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 63

4.33 Effect of gas flaring on Diastolic Blood Pressure of children residents in Bayelsa

State.      ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 64

4.34 Effect of gas flaring on Diastolic Blood Pressure of Adult residents in Bayelsa State.

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 65

4.35 Effect of flared gas on Pulse Rate of Children residents in Bayelsa State. ………. 66 4.36 Effect of flared gas on Pulse Rate of Adult residents in Bayelsa State. …………… 67

4.37 Effect of flared gas on Respiratory Rate of children residents in Bayelsa State. …..

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68

4.38 Effect of flared gas on Respiratory Rate of Adult residents in Bayelsa State …… 69

4.39 Effect of flared gas on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) of Children residents in

Bayelsa State. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 70

4.40 Effect of flared gas on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) of Adult residents in

Bayelsa State. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 71

4.41 Effect of flared gas on Systolic Blood pressure (SBP) of children residents in Delta

State       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72

4.42 Effect of flared gas on Systolic Blood pressure (SBP) of Adult residents in Delta State

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 73

4.43 Effect of flared gas on Diastolic Blood pressure (DBP) of Children residents in Delta

State       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74

4.44 Effect of flared gas on Diastolic Blood pressure (DBP) of Adult residents in Delta

State       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75

4.45 Effect of flared gas on Pulse Rate of Children residents in Delta State …………… 76

4.46 Effect of flared gas on Pulse Rate of Adult residents in Delta State ……………….. 77

4.47 Effect of flared gas on Respiratory Rate of Children residents in Delta State ….. 78

4.48 Effect of gas flaring on Respiratory Rate of Adult residents in Delta State ……… 79

4.49 Effect of flared gas on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) of Children residents in

Delta State ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 80

4.50 Effect of flared gas on Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) of Adult residents in Delta

State       ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 81

4.6.0 Gender Variation on the Impact of Flared Gas on Cardiopulmonary parameters.82

4.6.1 Gender VariationOn The Impact Of Flared Gas On Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP)

………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 83

4.6.3  Gender VariationOnThe Impact Of Flared Gas On Pulse Rate …………………….. 85

4.6.4  Gender variation on the Impact of flared Gas on Respiratory Rate……………….. 86

4.6.5  Gender Variation on The Impact Of Flared Gas On Peak Expiratory Flow Rate

(PEFR)  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87

4.7  Summary of research findings ……………………………………………………………………. 87

CHAPTER FIVE:DISCUSSION, CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1   Discussion ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 88

5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 94

5.3 Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………………… 95

5.4 Suggestion for further studies ……………………………………………………………………… 96

5.5 Contributions to knowledge ………………………………………………………………………… 96

REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. .97

APPENDIX I ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 111 APPENDIX II ……………………………………………………………………………………………….

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed at evaluating the impact of gas flare and its effect on cardiovascular and pulmonary parameters ofresidents in some states of the Niger Delta by specifically determining how gas flare impacted on blood pressure, pulse, peak expiratory flow and respiratory rate and associated changes of these parameters with time of exposure and possible gender variation induced by gas flare. Two locations (an experimental and a control) were used in five different states across the region under study– Edo (Oben and Ekiadolor), Rivers (Oshi and Ahoada), Akwa Ibom (Ibeno and Ikot Ekpene), Bayelsa (Immiringi and Ogbia) and Delta (Agbaro-otor and Eku).The two communities in each state are with similar socio economic and cultural characteristics and the residents are essentially artisans, traders, farmers, students and civil servants. The study adopted the direct administration of questionnaire, observation/recording and free medical check-up methods. The stratified random sampling method was used. The sample size was 1008 participants (504 in gas flared area and 504 in control area) this comprises of 686 adults and 322 children. The sample is made up of 564 males and 444 females. The electronic blood pressure kit assessed blood pressure and pulse rate of participants. Respiratory and peak expiratory flow rate of participants were observed and recorded by manual method and peak flow metre respectively. Questionnaire wasgiven physically to obtain personal details needed for analysis. Data obtained were subsequently subjected to statistical analysis. Significance difference between means was evaluated by student t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Findings show that gas flare increases mean pulse, respiratory and blood pressure of residents living in the gas flare areas. There was an associated reduction in average peak expiratory flow rate among inhabitants in the gas flared communities. A similar finding from the result is that gas flare impacted more on systolic component of blood pressure when compared to diastolic of residents. Findings also show that these cardiopulmonary parameters increases with prolonged exposure except peak expiratory flow rate that decreases with longer exposure time. Gender of residents affected the impact level of gas flare on some cardiopulmonary parameters. As contribution to knowledge, this study has offered valid information that unprotected exposure to gas flare can impact negatively on pulse, respiratory, peak expiratory flow rate and blood pressure of residents in the study area. This study has also shown that the level of impact of gas flare on these human cardiovascular and pulmonary parameters of people residing in this region is gender dependent. The study has also shown that the longer the time of exposure to gas flare the more the severity of changes in the cardiopulmonary parameters. The outcome of this study show that gas flare impacted more on systolic segment of blood pressure than diastolic blood pressure. This study has added to the existing literature on the evaluation of the health implication of flared gas on the socioeconomic environment in this region.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background Knowledge

Air pollution is a significant implicating factor associated with multiple health related conditions, including pulmonary infections, heart ailment with lung cancer (WHO, 2010).The health effects resulting from polluted airhave been documented to include several respiratory syndromes and worsening cardiopulmonary conditions.These effects have been shown to cause an increase in medications and hospital consultations. The human health implications of inadequate air quality are enormous, but majorly affect the body’s cardiopulmonary system.(WHO, 2010).Health status, level of exposure, pollutant type has been observedin individual response to polluted air.(WHO, 2010).The usualsources of polluted air include particulates, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.Earlier report has shown that indoor as well as outdoor air pollution has caused approximately 3.3 million deaths worldwide. (WHO, 2010)

1.1.1 Gas Flaring

Cedigaz (2000) has reported that Nigeria ranked the highest in natural gas

flaringworldwide, (19.79%) and is contributes to about 46 % of Africa‟s overall gas flared. Presently, there are so many flaring locations in the region;this led toNigeria topping the listof greenhouseemitter of gases in Africa (Uyigue and Agho, 2007).A lot of the natural gasobtained from oil wells in the region is flared into the open environment at approximately 70 million /m3 per day. This amounts to 40% of African total natural gasconsumption and occupies a major position globally with regard to greenhouse gas emissions (Friends of the earth, 2004 and World bank, 2008, Moffat and Linden, 1995). In a study that compared polluted air accumulation within the area under study, it was shown that pollutant concentrations were much higher in the Niger delta areas and that some greenhouse gasses emitted in these area contribute significantly to global warming.  (Orubu, 2002b)

 

 

Fig 1.Picture of gas flaring in Immiringi town in Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

 

Gas flaring is associated with the burning away of harmful substances into the open air.In the mix are carbon dioxide along with methane that are major causes of global warming. Gas flaring has been reportedly linked to acid rain thatcauses acidity of the lakes and streams and devastates crops and vegetation.(Akpan, 2003).It causes low farm production and impacts on human health and by extension livelihoods of the residents. Gas flaring raises the risk of respiratory ailment and cancer. It often leads to dyspnea, chronic inflammation of the bronchioles, lower lung function, pruritus, blindness, impotency, miscarriages and premature deaths (Friends of the earth, 2008).

 

A flare is defined as toilet up-side-downfor removing waste gas, oil, and co-produced sea-water, cheaply by burning the organic material in an open, uncontrolled manner, at an elevation off the ground varying from 15 to 75 metre or more. The elevation is to remove waste products and get them off from the work environment (Argo, 2002).It has been observed that people who lived and work close to the industry from 0.2km up to 35+km are prone to multiple flaring discharges (Argo, 2002).

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Poisonous chemicals from gas flares have often been connected with dangerous health conditions and the well- being of the neighbourhood. Among the products from combustions include sulphur dioxide, benzene, xyleneand particulate matter and carcinogens. Expose residents to these by-products are at risk a variety of cardiopulmonary diseases, which have been observed among most inhabitants of these oil rich regions but have apparently gone uninvestigated. These chemicals canworsenasthma and other disease conditions in the respiratory spectrum (Environmental Right Actionet al., 2005).Environmental and health disordershave been associated with polluted air in the study region. Poor visibility and acid rain formation is a recurrent feature in the region.On air quality impairment, Oluwoleet al. (1996) in a report on the Niger Delta observed that the extent of volatile oxides of carbon, sulphur, phosphorous, nitrogen where above the knownFederalEnvironmental Protection Agency‟s (FEPA, 1991) standards. Also,raised lead levelconcentrations of 0.56 mg/l in the atmosphere were observed, Olobaniyi and Efe (2007).

 

1.3 Aim/Objective of the Study

General objective

To assess the impact of gas flare on some cardiopulmonary parameters of residents in gas flaring communities in Niger Delta area of Nigeria.

The specific objectives are to determine the effect of gas flare on:

  1. Blood pressure of residents
  2. Resting heart rate(heart rate) of residents
  • Resting respiratory rate
  1. Peak expiratory flow rate of residents
  2. Duration of exposure on blood pressure, pulse, respiratory and peak expiratory flow rate and
  3. Possible gender variation induced by gas flare on blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate as well as peak expiratory flow rate

1.4 Significance of the Study

This study has expanded the knowledge about the impact of flared gas beyond its environmental effect. It hasbrought to fore the cardiopulmonary effect and the related health implication of harmful flaring of gas on the residents of the region. It will further arouse the interest of scientific and medical researchers towards the health implications of continuous gas and oil exploration in the already deteriorated oil rich region of Nigeria. This study will, however, add to the existing literature on evaluating the impact of gas flare on the socioeconomic environment in Nigeria.

 

 

1.5 Justification for the Study

Air pollution is one of the major environmental problems confronting the Niger Delta Area(NDA) yet information regarding this is very scanty. Aside from data collected by a fewpeople and corporate organizations at scattered locations, there is dearth of database on the extent of devastation and magnitude of the challenges in the area.

Gasflaring has caused extreme damage to the environment as well as severe consequences on health. More so, the people tend to be more anxious about the environmental hazard of the flared gas as it relates to their farm lands, vegetation, aquatic habitants and their sourceof living with little knowledge about the health implications. While it is a common knowledge that gas flaring poisons communities across the region, there is dearth of comprehensive study on the health impacts of flared gas on communities in this region, including the extent of impact on cardiopulmonary indices. This study also intends to bridge the gap in awareness about the health impacts of flared gas on the people with specific reference to cardiopulmonary parameters

1.6 Scope of the Study

Fig 1.1

1            2                 3                 4             5             6            7           8             9

Abia      Akwa         Bayelsa      Cross      Delta      E d o      Imo      Ondo      Rivers

Ibom                             River

FIG 1.1: MAPS SHOWING AN OVERVIEW OF NIGER DELTA

 

The research coverstwo communities each in five of the Niger Delta states. One, a gas flare location (experimental area) and the other a non-gas flaring location (control) will be at least 35km from the gas flaring location.

State                                            Experimental Area                  Control

Akwa Ibom Ibeno Ikot Ekpene
Bayelsa

Delta

Edo

Immiringi

Agbarho-otor/Ughelli

Oben

Ogbia

Eku

Ekiadolor

Rivers Oshi Ahoada
     

A total number of one thousand and eight (1008) participantswere used for this research. This comprise of five hundred and four in the gas flaring communities and five hundred and four in the non-gas flaring communities.The electronic blood pressurekitwas used to record blood pressure value and resting heart rate of the residents. The Peak flow meter as a spirometric device was used to assess peak flow rates of the residents and the respiratory rate was taken manually with stop watches.

A STUDY OF GAS FLARE ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS OF RESIDENTS IN GAS FLARING COMMUNITIES IN SELECTED NIGER DELTA STATES

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