AN ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT IN AN INSTITUTION (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE)
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The main focus of this study was to examine the Assessment of the Impact of Conflict and Conflict management in an Institution, A case study of University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The Study revealed that conflict has become a key issue of discussion in the contemporary business world. On the other hand, if organizational conflict is not checked it could result to serious destructive effect. Conflict management is something that companies and managers need to seriously deal with. The researcher adopted both primary and secondary sources of data gathering for the study, employees of the case study made up the population of the study which was made up of 120 employees. Questionnaires was used to obtain information from the respondents in chapter four of the study each information obtain from the questionnaire where carefully analyze to convey meaningful idea to the readers. Hypothesis was carefully tested and necessary recommendations were issued at the end of each hypothesis tested. Conflict cannot be said to be good or bad but managers are advised to accept it and adopt strategies to manage. I therefore, recommend to every manager of organizations and institutions to accept conflict and adopt necessary strategies to manage it.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification – – – – – – – – i
Dedication – – – – – – – – ii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – iii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents` – – – – – – v
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problems – – – – 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – 5
1.4 Research Questions – – – – – – 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis – – – – – – 6
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – 7
1.7 Limitations of the Study – – – – – 8
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – 10
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 12
2.2 Conflict – – – – – – – – 14
2.3 Conflict Management – – – – – 17
2.4 Substantive versus Affecting Conflict – – – 20
2.5 Organizational and Interpersonal Conflict – – 21
2.6 Early Conflict Management Models – – – 22
2.7 Sources of Conflict in an Organization – – – 23
2.8 Industrial conflicts Grievances, Disputes and Resolution 26
2.9 Causes of Industrial Conflicts – – – – 30
2.10 External Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution – – 31
2.11 Types of Conflicts – – – – – – 37
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 39
3.2 Area of the Study – – – – – – 39
3.3 Population of the Study – – – – – 40
3.4 Sample/Sampling Technique – – – – 40
3.5 The Sample Size – – – – – – – 41
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection – – – – 41
3.7 Validation of Instrument for Data Collection – 42
3.8 Methods and instruments for Data Analysis – – 42
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction – – – – – – 43
4.2 Respondent’s Characteristics and Classification – 43
4.3 Presentation and Analysis of Data According to Research Questions – – – – – – – – 47
4.4 Test of Hypothesis – – – – – – 49
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 53
5.2 Summary of Study – – – – – – 53
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – 54
5.4 Recommendations – – – – – – 56
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
When two motive conflict, the satisfaction of one lead to the frustration of the others. Conflicts is based on the incompatibility of goals and arise from opposing behaviors. It can be viewed at the individual, group or organization level Akanimo T. (2013:19).
Organization experience one form of conflict or the other as a result of disagreement between two or more individual within an organization as a result of difference in status, scarce-economic resources, goal and interdependent nature of work activities etc. It is worthwhile to consider briefly the nature of individual goals. Some workers may regard the job as an instrument to achieved good pay, status, good domestic and social life, promotion and job satisfaction. Even moving to another city with promotion or enhanced status may conflict with the desire for a settle family in a certain area. Conflict, therefore, is behaviour intended to obstruct the achievement of some other person’s goals. George A. (2010:12).
Within every institution, there are various sub-goal of the various groups and management attempts to manipulate these sub-goal to ensure that the survival of the institution is more readily achieved. This involved co-coordinating all demands both from inside and outside the institution. For example, shareholders and government pay and prices, competition etc. Comfort C. (2010:11).
According to Joy N. (2008:11) “Conflict is the condition of objectives in compatibility between values or goals as the behaviour deliberately inferring with another’s goal- achievement and emotionally, in terms of hostility”. In other hand, conflict management is the process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict. Akanimo T (2013.21). The aim of conflict management is to enhance learning and group outcomes, including effectiveness or performance in organizational setting. Properly managed conflict can improve group outcomes. In an organization, No supervisors spend more than 25% of their time on conflict management and managers spend more than 18% of their time on relational employee conflicts. This has doubled since the 1980s. Reasons for these are “the growing complexity of organizations, use of terms and group decision making and globalization”. Lang, O. (2009, pg 240).
Conflict in an institution is a natural phenomena conflict cannot be said to be good or bad but administrators of various institutions are advised to accept it and adopt strategies to manage it. Louis Poudy (1999).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Organizations that frequently experience hospitality cannot achieve its predetermine objectives but organizations that always experience harmonious working relationship with it members easily achieve their sets goals. Findings both in Nigeria and the world over also reveal that the inability of various organizations to attain it target aims are as a result of conflict, the inability manage various forms of conflict sometimes leads to shutting down of the establishment. This study will envisage on the following problems that hampered the progress of institutions they are:
- The causes of conflicts in the institution.
- The behaviour of the school administrators in eliminating conflict in the institution.
- Inadequate funds to tackle conflict whenever it occur.
- External contributors of conflict in the institution.
However, since the outcome of conflict is always negative compare to its positive side, it is imperative to carefully assess the impact of conflict and conflict management in University of Uyo.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study include the following;
- To assess the impact of conflict and conflict management in an institution.
- To find out the causes of conflict in an institution and how to manage them.
- To review how these conflict affect academic and other activities in the institution.
- To prefer dependable solution to the causes of conflict in the institution.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions formulated, assisted the researcher to carry out the research. They were;
- How does conflict affect the academic and other activities in University of Uyo?
- Is there any conflict before in the Institution?
- What are the causes of conflict in the institution?
- Can conflict be properly managed in the institution?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following null and alternative hypothesis will assist the researcher to carryout the study successfully. They are;
- Ho: Conflict does not affect academic and other
important activities in the institution
Hi: Conflict do affect academic and other important
activities in the institution
- Ho: Conflict does not occur before in the institution.
Hi: Conflict do occasionally occur in the school.
- Ho: There is no cause of conflict in the Institution
Hi: There are causes of conflict in the Institution
- Ho: Conflict cannot be properly managed in the
Hi: Conflict can be properly managed in the
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research will be of great significant to the set of people;
- To the researcher, the study will broaden her scope of knowledge in the area of conflict and conflict management in an organization, at home and the institution under study as well.
- Students from within and outside the institution will find this material reliable in carrying out research on the similar topic in future, by referring to the material as a reference.
- The institution under study will benefit from the study in the sense that the recommendations issue out at the end of this study if fully implemented will help address the issues of conflict and how it can be properly managed so that the objective of the institution can be achieved.
- Any research carry out aim at solving a particular problem thereby creating history in the mind of the researchers and even the respondents
However, a copy of the research will be reserve in the library for the purpose of future references and as a history.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
According to contemporary English Dictionary (1999), 7th edition, defines limitations as “A restriction that limits something, an imperfection or short coming which limits something use or value.
With regards to the study, the major challenges encountered during the course of the study include the following:
- Inadequate funds on the part of the researcher to carry out the research intensively.
- Facilities was also considered as hindrance to the successfully completion of the study in time.
- Inability to access various places to gather materials for the study as a result of inadequate funds also hampered the progress of the study.
- Poor or failure on the part of the respondents to issue out reasonable information that could enhance the completion of the study.
- Since the calendar has already been fixed by the school and no avenue for amendment, limited time-frame was allotted to project works which also contribute to limitations.
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Delimitation on the other hand is considered as a limit or boundary or an act of limiting something. The study was limited to the University of Uyo, Uyo Akwa Ibom State which was considered as the case of study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terminologies that has close affinity with the topic of study were carefully examined to convey meaning to the research as well as the readers they are:
- Assessment: An opinion or a judgment about something or somebody that has been thought about very carefully (evaluation).
- Impact: A significant or strong influence on something or a way of evaluating changes from an intervention or development programme.
- Conflict: To come into collision or disagreement, be contradictory, at variance or in opposition, clash.
- Conflict Management: The Process of limiting the negative aspects of conflict while increasing the positive aspects of conflict.
- Institution: An institution is any structure or mechanism of social order governing the behaviour of a set of individual within a given community.