IMPACT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON ORGANIZATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY (A CASE STUDY OF ANCHOR INSURANCE COMPANY LTD, UYO)
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The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of job satisfaction on organizational productivity. This study provided a review of job satisfaction in Anchor Insurance Company Ltd, Uyo. The hypothesis and Statement of the problem were formulated in chapter one. This lead to the collection of both primary and secondary data through the use of questionnaires, interview and data collected from textbooks. The population of 36 and sample size of 35 was determined which helped her in the analysis of data and determination of findings with simple percentage table and Chi-square as method of data analysis. One of the researcher’s findings is how job satisfaction is significantly related to organizational productivity. In view of these findings the researcher recommended that the following measures should be considered and implemented. The management of Anchor Insurance Company Ltd should create good working environment to enhance Good Avenue for effective job satisfaction.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Job satisfaction refers to the joy derived from during a job in which a person has a particular interest. This is what Herzberg, a motivation theorist called the job itself. Job satisfaction is usually associated with changing tasks which require a maximum utilization of the person’s ability and skill. When such factor is present in a job, the job holder achieves a high level of satisfaction.
The impact of job satisfaction on organizational productivity can be seen in an employee who is motivated to increase his productivity in jobs in which he possesses necessary skills. These skills enable him to enjoy satisfaction. A person who does not possess the necessary skills to do an assigned job may derive little or no satisfaction from the job. This situation often leads to frustration, boredom and stress which may in turn result in various defensive behaviours. For instance, a qualified accountant in a bank who is employed as a clerk is being blocked from deriving the joy or satisfaction that will lead to his self actualization. A. A. Chikere and J. C. Okafor 2012.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The study tends to find out how job satisfaction create or ensure full impact to the success of an organization. The smooth flow of job satisfaction range from organization to organization as no challenge could be said as been fixed or paramount to any organization.
Money stands to be a strong and hindering factor to the smooth running of any organization fringe benefits. This also form a vital problem employee loses adequate efficiency if some benefits are not been attached to their salary as maybe specified by the organization e.g. could be health insurance etc. if been attached it foster the full compliance of the organizational goals and objectives but when not be practice it pose to become a problem.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study aims at examining the impact of job satisfaction on organizational productivity. The specific objectives include the following;
- To examine the cost benefit analysis of the application of job satisfaction on organizational productivity.
- To know the extent to which job satisfaction affects organizational productivity.
- To ascertain the extent to which job satisfaction has enhanced organizational productivity in an organization.
- To identify the impediment associated with job satisfaction.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To act as a guide to a through investigation of the following questions were asked;
- Does job satisfaction lead to increase efficiency in production.
- Does job satisfaction have direct impact on organizational productivity?
- Is there any significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational productivity?
- To what extent has job satisfaction enhanced organizational productivity in an organization?
- Is there any cost benefit the application of job satisfaction on organizational productivity?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational productivity.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between job satisfaction and organizational productivity.
- Ho: Job satisfaction does not have direct influence on organizational productivity.
Hi: Job satisfaction has direct influence on organizational productivity.
- Ho: Job Satisfaction does not lead to increase efficiency in
Hi: Job satisfaction lead to increase efficiency in production.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this work would be very vital to management of Anchor Insurance Company Ltd, Uyo. The significance are as follows:
- It would serve as a source of information to management of other organization other than insurance company Ltd.
- It will help management and staff of Anchor Insurance Company Limited, Uyo in formulating policy which will help in providing the working conditions of employees and also help trainees in any organization to undergo different training to meet the challenges of their various jobs.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is restricted to job satisfaction on organizational productivity in Anchor Insurance Company Ltd, Uyo.
The limitations of this study sis as follows;
- The financial constraint and the time requirement needed in this study were never easy on the researcher.
- The general part of the respondent made in data gathering is a difficult task. In spite of these constraints, the researcher made a satisfactory effort to generate enough needed data for this research.
1.8 BRIEF HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ANCHOR INSURANCE COMPANY LTD, UYO.
Anchor Insurance Company Limited (“the Company”) was incorporated on 6th June, 1989 vide certification of Incorporation No. Rc 132269 as a private limited liability company. The company was originally wholly owned by the Akwa Ibom State Government with an authorized share capital of N5, 000, 000 divided into 5, 000, 000 ordinary shares of N1.00 each. The company was registered to carry on all classes of insurance business except life. However, in 1992, it was also licensed to transact Life/Pensions, thus attaining a composite status.
The registered office of the company is located at 7/13, Aka Road, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State. The company has over the years increased its clientele base and geographical spread of its insurance services by opening branch offices in Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Eket, Apapa, Abeokuta, Akure, Ibadan, Calabar, Enugu and Warri. As part of its efforts to reposition the Akwa Ibom State economy as a private sector-driven economy, the state government decided to privatize some of its enterprises. Anchor Insurance Company Limited was one of such enterprises that were slated for privatization.
The need to privatize the company was based on the assessment that private ownership and control would provide the strategic focus that will turn around the company’s fortunes and enable it realize its corporate objectives. It was also believed that based on industry experience, an inflow of a large quantum of funds was key to moving the company to the path of sustainable growth and profitability. Hence, in the privatization exercise in January 2003, Ukartel Nigeria Limited emerged as the successful core investor in Anchor Insurance Company Limited. The current shareholding structure in the company is as follows:
- Ukartel Nigeria Limited 55%
- Akwa Ibom State Government 20%
- Other Private Investors 25%
The insurance market in Nigeria is set to experience major market shifts in the next few years. A number of factors would drive the expected changes, which include:
Insurance of Public buildings: There is a law recently enacted which makes insurance of all public buildings in the country against fire compulsory. This is going to open up a huge market for fire insurance for operators.
Universal Banking: The universal Banking is now the new way of doing business in the financial services industry. Although Banks are encroaching more into insurance business services, Anchor Insurance Company Limited, already offers the benefits of life policy to its life and savings depositors. Competition in the industry would be keener in the coming years.
Domestication of More Insurance Businesses: The insurance Act of 2003 has domesticated more insurance businesses in Nigeria. The law provides that no person shall transact insurance or reinsurance business with a foreign insurer or reinsurer in respect of any life, asset or general businesses classified as domestic insurance unless with a company registered insurance companies. This would definitely increase local retention capacity of insurance companies in Nigeria.
New NIPC Act: The new Nigeria investment promotion council Act now allows foreign investors to invest in any sector of the Nigerian economy with up to 100% ownership. With more insurance and reinsurance businesses domesticated in the country, the new NIPC Act would attract foreign insurance companies into Nigeria. Such companies with their huge balance sheets and technical expertise would inch up competition in the industry.
The Local content Policy in the Oil and Gas Industry
The oil and gas industry is the mainstay of the Nigerian economy accounting for about 90% of the nation’s foreign exchange and 80% of the country’s national budget yearly. Until mid 2003, oil and gas insurances in Nigeria were effected abroad. The few participating Nigerian insurance companies only did so as mere agents of foreign insurers. This practice resulted in massive capital flight from the country as virtually all premium ended up abroad. To redress this unacceptable situation, the country is now coming up with a local content policy in the oil and gas industry.
To ensure implementation of the local content policy, a national committee on local content development has been set up by the Federal government. This committee defines local content as “the quantum of composite value added to, or created in, the Nigerian economy through a deliberate utilization of Nigerian human and material resources and services in the exploration, development, exploitation, transportation and sale of Nigerian crude oil and gas resources, without compromising quality, health, safety and environment”. The local content policy requires that about 40% of all Oil and Gas related businesses should be done locally. This policy coupled with domestication of more insurance businesses would open up more market opportunities for insurance operators in the country. This is capital intensive, hence, the need for insurance companies to shore-up their capital base to be able to participate in the insurance.
The Cabotage Act: The cabotage law which became operational in 2014 is another positive development in the insurance industry. By the provisions of section 22 (1) of the Act, all vessels in coastal trade are to be registered in the country. The insurance of such vessels and their cargoes are to be issued locally. The Act also established Cabotage Vessel financing fund through which insurance companies would be involved in providing funding for vessels acquisition and at the same time providing insurance covers for them. This development would open new market opportunities in the coming years.
ANCHOR’S KEY STRENGTHS
The company has a number of strategic advantages that give it an edge over other competing insurance companies. Anchor’s strengths take advantage of prevailing opportunities in the market.
- The Akwa Ibom State Government (through AKIIPOC) still owns 20% equity stake in the company; hence, doors of business patronage by government agencies in the state are easily open to the Anchor Insurance Company Limited. This edge is particularly important considering the compulsory insurance of all public buildings in the country. With the current restructuring and repositioning of the company, we would be able to optimize and take full advantage of this strength in the coming years.
- The company prior to the coming of the core investor, Ukartel Nigeria Limited was wholly state-owned. Like it is the case with most government-owned business in Nigeria, Anchor was, quite frankly, mismanaged. With the privatization of the company, political control and interference in the company have been completely removed. The company is now poised for growth and profitability.
- Some of the oil and gas companies operating in the state patronize Anchor Insurance Company Limited not only as a business decision but also as part of their “community relations” policy. With the repositioning of the company, management will exploit this strategic edge to its full advantage by ensuring prompt payment of claims to the insured as the contractual relationships demand.
- The company has a branch network covering major industrial and commercial cities like Lagos, Port Harcourt and Abuja among others. This provides an edge for the company. In the coming years, the branches would be strengthened through appropriate staffing and provision of resources so that they can realize their full potentials.
- Anchor Insurance Company Limited is one of the very few insurance companies with its head office located in the South-South geo-political zone of the country. We intend to leverage on this distinction and to become the dominant regional insurer and a significant national player.
PRODUCTS AND SERVICES
Anchor Insurance Company Limited offers a wide range of general and special Insurance services to corporate, government and individual clients throughout the country.
General business or Non-life
- Fire and special perils and consequential loss
- General accident insurance
- Personal/Group Personal Accident
- Fidelity Guarantee Policy
- House Owner’s/House Holder’s Combined Policy
- Performance Bond
- Advanced Payment Bond
- Bid Bond
- Customs Bond
- Credit Bond
- Motor Insurance
- Public Liability
- Workmen’s Compensation
- Marine Insurance (Hull, Boats, Cargo)
- Engineering/Contractor’s all Risk
- Aviation (Cargo)
- Energy (Oil and Gas)
- Deposit Administration
- Whole Life Assurance
- Endowment Assurance
- Educational Assurance
- Flexible Cash Payment Plan
- Level Term Assurance
- Mortgage Protection
- Family Income Benefit
- Group Life Schemes
In addition to the aforementioned conventional insurance products, we have also developed a number of innovative products list below to meet the needs of our clients.
Anchor Investment Plan: This is a high yield and tax-effective investment plan that provide high return on investment with death cover. It is carefully designed to afford policy holders enough edge to cushion effects of inflation at minimum costs.
Anchor Personal Retirement Plan: This scheme allows participants, especially those in private practice, to make provision for those days where, on account of old age, ill health or other cause, they need to retire from their practice or vocation.
Anchor Savings Assurance Plan: This is a savings plan meant to accumulate funds for particular needs, in addition to providing protection against death during the policy.
Anchor School Fees Assurance Plan: This is a scheme meant to guarantee a child’s education through funds accumulated by the parents or the benefactor in order that the child’s education will not be impaired in case of the demise of the sponsor.
Anchor Funeral Plan: this is designed to provide funds to cover funeral expenses of policy holders and their spouses (where the policy holder is a man). It extends to provide up to 75% of sum Assured as death cover for the benefit of parents and parent in-law.
Commuter’s Welfare insurance Scheme: This Insurance policy ensures that commuters whose names are on the manifest complied at designed motor parks are covered under our group personal accident insurance policy.
Commercial motorcyclists Insurance Welfare Scheme: Under this scheme, both the rider and the passenger on a commercial motorcycle are covered under our group personal accident insurance.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The following terms are defined in the context which they are used in the research work.
- Organization: An organization is a combination of people or individual efforts working together in pursuit of certain common purposes known as organizational goals. (Hicks and Gullet, 1999).
- Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction refers to a individuals general attitude toward his or her job. (Journal of management 1998, p. 355).
- Motivation: Bederan (1995) defined motivation as a predisposition to behaviour in a purposeful manner to achieve specific needs.
- Productivity: This refers to the effective use of the factors of production to produce goods and services (Mali, 1996).
- Management: According to McNamera (2003) management can be defined as the co-ordination of all the resources of an organization through the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in order to attain organization objectives.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This study is organized into fives (5) chapters. Chapter one gives brief introduction of the study, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research questions and hypothesis, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and organization of the study.
Chapter two deals with a review of related literature. Chapter three considered the research methodology. Under this chapter, there is a brief introduction of sample, sampling techniques, instrument used for gathering data, and data analysis of data analysis technique. Chapter four deals with analysis of data and discussion of findings. Chapter five has the conclusion and recommendations.