EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF SUPPLEMENTATION OF FEED ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY RESPONSE, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN BROILERS CHALLENGED WITH INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS

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EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF SUPPLEMENTATION OF FEED ON PERFORMANCE, ANTIBODY RESPONSE, HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN BROILERS CHALLENGED WITH INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS

 

Abstract:

 

This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) supplementation of feed on performance, antibody response, haematological and biochemical parameters of broilers challenged with a very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV). Fresh MOL was collected from Potiskum, Yobe State and air dried for five days, ground into powder using a milling machine and analyzed for nutrients and elements using standard method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. The phytochemical constituents analysis of MOL was done using the method described by Sofowora. Two hundred and forty day-old Ross 308 hybrid broiler chicks were randomly assigned into four groups (A, B, C and D) of 60 chicks each and raised in a deep litter house consisting of 4 separate compartments. All birds were fed with broiler starter (BS) from 0 to 28 days of age and broiler finisher (BF) from 29 to 49 days of age. Broiler starter (22% crude protein CP) and BF (20% CP) mash were formulated each with 5% MOL included as part of the feed ingredient for broilers in groups A and B while BS and BF for broilers in groups C and D were formulated without MOL. Only birds in groups A and C were vaccinated intramuscularly with 0.5 ml of an inactivated intermediate strain infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine at 14 and 21 days of age. Inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine (Komorov strain) was also administered (0.5 ml) intramuscularly at 18 days of age to groups A and C. Birds in groups A, B and C were challenged intraocularly at 35 days of age with vvIBDV while those in group D served as control. Daily feed intake (DFI), average daily weight gain (ADWG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and selling price (SP) per bird were determined for each group. Five birds were randomly selected and euthanized from each group on 35, 38 and 42 days of age and the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen and Harderian glands were removed for evaluation of organ body weight index. Blood was collected from ten broilers in each group via the wing vein on 14, 21, 35, 38 and 42 days of age to determine the IBD antibody titre level, haematological and biochemical parameters. At 49 days of age, five birds from each group were slaughtered and their carcasses weighed to assess the performance of birds fed with MOL supplemented diets. The results of the nutrients analysis showed that MOL contained carbohydrate (55.14%), CP (25.9%), crude fibre (13.91%), moisture (7.94%), fat (5.85%), ash (3.72%) and energy (2930.63 Kcal/Kg). The phytochemical analysis of MOL revealed phytates (2.57%), tannins (2.19%), saponins (1.06%), oxalates (0.45%) and cyanides (0.1%). The elemental analysis on MOL revealed Ca (2.26%), P (0.35%), Mg (0.45%), K (1.9%), Na (0.11%), Zn (34 ppm), Cu (7.5 ppm), Mn (40.5 ppm), Fe (116.5 ppm) and Se (0.85 ppm). Broilers in group D correlated more strongly (Pearson correlation = 0.921; P = 0.000) in their feed intake than those in groups B (Pearson correlation = 0.875; P = 0.000), C (Pearson correlation = 0.863; P = 0.000) and A (Pearson correlation = 0.862; P = 0.000). Broilers in groups A and B had weaker correlation (Pearson 0.379 108; P = 0.273). Broilers from groups D, A and B had a higher selling price/bird (N 1,151 ± 82.82, N1,093 ± 54.11 and N935.9 ± 70.69, respectively) than those in group C (N908.3 ± 63.97). There was an increase in the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IBD antibody titre level of broilers between 21 and 35 days of age in groups A (1,379.89 ± 829.98 to 2,836.83 ± 463.58), C (1,576.94 ± 566.51 to 3,290.51 ± 848.87) and D (1,542.43 ± 106.80 to 2,953.49 ± 561.88), and up to 42 days of age in broilers of group B (1,205.94 ± 612.32 to 3,193.10 ± 478.52). Moringa oleifera leaf feed supplementation improved bursa (1.4, 1.4), spleen (1.3, 1.1) and Harderian gland (2.0, 2.0) organ to body weight index of broilers of groups A and B. Feeding broilers with 5% MOL supplemented diet without vaccination (group B) did not prevent vvIBDV from causing a decrease in lymphocyte count from 3.87 ± 1.52 to 2.67 ± 1.26 on day 3 pi. Supplementation of broiler feed with 5% MOL and vaccination with inactivated IBD vaccine did not prevent a decrease in PCV (28.60 ± 1.77 % to 21.80 ± 3.46 % and 25.22 ± 2.28 % to 21.44 ± 1.33 %) and RBC (2.44 ± 0.44 x 1012/L to 2.01 ± 0.42 x 1012/L and 2.25 ± 0.26 x 1012/L to 1.79 ± 0.52 x 1012/L), but caused an increase in Hb (10.55 ± 2.21 g/dl to 10.78 ± 1.95 g/dl and 9.81 ± 0.97 g/dl to 11.39 ± 1.17 g/dl) concentration on day 3 pi with vvIBDV in groups A and C. There were respective increase in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels in groups A (39.90 ± 3.96 IU L-1 to 45.10 ± 5.70 IU L-1and 42.90 ± 3.21 IU L-1 to 49.60 ± 3.56 IU L-1), B (39.80 ± 3.68 IU L-1 to 48.50 ± 4.22 IU L-1 and 43.30 ± 3.83 IU L-1 to 54.20 ± 5.53 IU L-1) and C (38.40 ± 3.20 IU L-1 to 42.80 ± 4.02 IU L-1 and 42.70 ± 4.80 IU L-1 to 48.60 ± 4.45 IU L-1). However, similar increase were observed in group D following challenge with vvIBDV (41.80 ± 3.85 IU L-1 to 45.30 ± 5.64 IU L-1 and 44.20 ± 4.52 IU L-1 to 51.60 ± 3.69 IU L-1). Supplementing broilers feed with MOL without vaccination against vvIBDV could not prevent lipid peroxidation (from 1.37 ± 0.23 IU-1 to 1.51 ± 0.30 IU-1) in broilers of group B following inoculation with vvIBDV. Supplementing broilers feed with MOL maintained the level of Na+ concentration in broilers of group A (140.00 ± 2.79 mg/dl to 139.90 ± 2.69 mg/dl) and B (140.10 ± 2.51 mg/dl to 138.30 ± 2.50 mg/dl) following inoculation with vvIBDV. Feed millers are encouraged to create awareness among poultry farmers on the nutritional and health benefits of MOL inclusion in the diets of broilers. Broilers fed with MOL supplemented diets can be vaccinated by farmers since it has no adverse effect against immune response to IBD.

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