IMPACT OF MICRO–TEACHING SKILLS ON NIGERIAN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION STUDENTS TEACHING PRACTICE PERFORMANCE IN NORTH-WEST GEO-POLITICAL ZONE, NIGERIA

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IMPACT OF MICRO–TEACHING SKILLS ON NIGERIAN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION STUDENTS TEACHING PRACTICE PERFORMANCE IN NORTH-WEST GEO-POLITICAL ZONE, NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the impact of micro teaching skills on Nigeria colleges of education student performance in teaching practice. The objectives of the study were to; examine the impact of the skill of appropriate use of instructional materials on the performance of student-teacher, identify the impact of the skill of appropriate use of classroom control on the performance of student teachers, determine the impact of the skills of appropriate use of chalkboard management on the performance of student teacher, examine the impact of the skills of stimulus variation on the performance of students teachers, and identify the impact of the skill of appropriate use of questioning skills on the performance of students teachers on to teaching practice. The objectives of the study were transformed into five research questions and five hypotheses. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. The population for this study comprised of all the 35,618 NCE three (3) (2015/2016) session students of Colleges of Education in the Study Area who were posted to the field for practical experience (teaching practice). The sample for the study was 2,744 NCE III students of federal college of education Zaria, and the federal college of Education Kano had 2567 students presently on teaching practice using purposeful sampling technique. However, 10% of the target population (531) was used for effective conduct of the research work. The instruments used were modified student teacher assessment form (MSTAF) which was modified by the researcher from the original micro teaching practicum assessment guide (MITPAG) approved by National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and questionnaire in assessing the student, while the interview questions were used to interview the students teachers lecturers of the institutions (see appendix (B,C, &D). The reliability level of the instrument was found to be 0.80 using Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC). Data collected was analyzed using statistical packages for social science (SPSS) version 20 and stata version 13. The major findings from the analysis of the data revealed that the appropriate use of instruction materials have tremendous impact on the student teachers ability to make use of instructional materials. The study also revealed that the ability to use the skill of classroom control has an impact on the performance of student teacher to manage/control the class. Furthermore, the study revealed that the appropriate use of chalk board management skills has a significant impact on the performance of student teacher to manage his/her chalkboard. In addition, the study revealed that, varying stimulus has significant impact on the student teacher. Finally, the study pointed out that, the use of questioning skill have a significant impact on the performance of student teachers to ask questions appropriately. Based on the research finding, the researcher recommended that: The use of instructional materials should be taught to student teachers at all levels of NCE programme to enhance their performance during teaching practice. Also, concerted effort should be intensified by the teacher educator to ensure that student-teachers comprehend the skill of classroom control to enhance performance during teaching practice. In addition, the Head of unit of micro-teaching practicum session should create a special display session to enhance student teachers performance in chalkboard management during teaching practice, teacher educator should be explicitly proactive in guiding the student teacher‟s skill of stimulus- variation to enhance performance during teaching practice. And effort should be intensified by the teacher educators to adequately acquaint the student teacher to be brief, precise and clear in using questioning skill technique in classroom instruction during teaching practice

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page 0
Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Abstract vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Appendices ix
List of Tables x
List of Abbreviations xi
Operational Definition of Terms xii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 8
1.4 Research Questions 9
1.5 Hypotheses 9
1.6 Basic Assumptions 10
1.7 Significance of the Study 11
1.8 Scope of the Study 13
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 14
2.2 Theoretical Framework 15
2.3 Conceptual Framework 18
2.3.1 Overview of Microteaching in Teacher Education Programme 20
2.3.2 Micro Teaching Models 26
2.4 Relevance of Micro Teaching in Teacher Training Programme and
Curriculum Development 37
2.5 Relevance of Micro Teaching to Student Teachers Preparation 38
7

2.6 The Position of National Commission for Colleges of Education
On Microteaching 46
2.7.1 Micro Teaching Principle for Effective Skills Acquisition and Effective
Student Teacher Performance 47
2.7.2 Micro Teaching Process for Effective Skill Acquisition and Teacher
Performance 49
2.8 Objectives of Microteaching for Successful Teacher Training Programme 52
2.8.1 Rationale for Teaching Practice Exercise 53
2.8.2 Responsibilities of the Supervising Teacher 56
2.8.3 Duration of Teaching Practice 59
2.8.4 Guidelines for Effective Teaching Practice 61

2.8.5 Leadership Role for Positive Change in Teaching Practice 62
2.9 Micro Teaching Skills 63
2.10 Micro Teaching Skills for Effective Teacher Training Programme 93
2.11 Micro Teaching Clinic for Student Teachers Activities for Effective Skills
Acquisition 99
2.12Challenges Facing Micro Teaching in a Teacher Education Programme 102
2.13 Empirical Studies 105
2.14 Summary 117
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 119
3.2 Research Design 119
3.3 Population of the Study 119
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 120
3.5 Instrumentation 121
3.5.1 Validity of the Instruments 121
3.5.2 Pilot Study 122
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument 122
3.5.4 Procedure for Data Collection 122
3.6 Procedure for Data Analysis 123
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 124
4.2 Presentation of Respondents Bio Data 124
4.3 Response to Research Questions 125
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4.4 Assessment of Micro Teaching Skills 134
4.5 Testing of Hypotheses 135
4.5.1 Multiple Regression Analysis 136
4.6 Summary of Findings 138
4.7 Discussion of Findings 139
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 142
5.2 Conclusion 143
5.3 Recommendations 143
5.4.1 Contribution to Knowledge 144
5.4.2 Suggestion for Further Research 145
References 146
Appendices:

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

 

Microteaching is a scaled-down simulated teaching encounter designed for the training of both pre-service and in-service teachers. According to Chuajin, & Chummei, 2011; Salawu, 2011, microteaching has been in use worldwide since its invention at Stanford University in the late 1950s by Dwight, Robert and Romney. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the opportunity for concept lessons in any teaching subject. Also Mcnight cited in Millis, Hertel, and Noyd, (2007); Romesh (2013), see Micro-teaching as a scaled down realistic classroom training context in which teachers, both experienced and inexperienced, may acquire new teaching skills and refine old ones. Apart from being an essential process of transforming and modifying the student teacher behavior to demonstrate a given behavior, it also provides a tremendous opportunity for both pre-service and in-service teachers to develop and improve their pedagogical skills with a small group of students mostly (5 to 8) using limited period of (5-10) minutes, records on video tape for reviewing, responding, refining and re-teaching towards perfection (Peker, 2009, p. 872-880).

 

The micro-teaching environment enables a student teacher to focus attention on the practice of specific skills at a time until he/she acquires competence in it. Provision of feedback accelerates this process. After acquiring competence in a number of skills in this way, the student teacher takes to micro-teaching so as to demonstrate his/her level of competence. It is a vital technique which provides continuous training to serving teachers. Most of professional teachers who have reached their high professional level do not want to improve their skill of teaching. Micro teaching helps in overcoming such pitfalls. It provides setting for experimentation. With the introduction of developed curriculum, teachers are required to acquire new skills of teaching. The National Policy on Education (FGN, 2009, p56) pointed out that “all teachers in our educational institutions, from pre-primary, will be professionally trained. Teacher education programme will be structured to equip teachers for the effective performance of their duties”. One way to achieve this government pronouncement is the proactive of micro teaching both at pre-service and in-service training.

 

As a modeling instructional skill, the micro teaching setting is meant for the demonstration of good teaching skills by student- teachers which can be recorded on video-tape or observed by a supervisor. Such a recording or observation is analyzed to identify component skills comprising teaching which is a complex activity(Verma & Sharma in Audu,2010). Similarly, sub-behaviors underlying each skill can also be identified. The knowledge obtained will help in building various component teaching skills. These models are presented before the trainees so that they may model their behavior according to the models of the skills, by practicing in the micro teaching setting.

 

In spite of the fact that the approach to supervision under micro teaching is non-evaluative, the supervisor still functions as a guide or an adviser. The supervisor in micro-teaching tries to help the trainee teacher or the practicing teacher to improve his skills of teaching. Prior to the commencement of micro teaching exercise, both the student- teacher and the supervisor are clear about the objective to be achieved or skill to be demonstrated. They are also clear about the mode and instrument of assessment to be used. Such a procedure provides common frame of reference for the supervisor and trainee teacher for a dialogue. The suggestions given by the supervisor are incorporated in the new lesson for a re-teach practice (Verma & Sharmain in Aggarwal 2009; & Audu 2010).

 

Consequently, micro-teaching provides a golden opportunity to the student teacher towards exercising control over some variables, which may have tremendous effect in teaching and learning e.g. volume of students in a class, the nature/quality of the student, the length of the period for micro teaching administration, the motivation as well as the evaluation of the student, and so forth.

 

From experience of the researcher and more importantly contact with pre-service teachers (NCE and Undergraduate), needed skills of teaching are difficult to acquire on different methodology course, hence the need to integrate micro- teaching into the professional development of the pre-service teachers. Therefore, the researcher decided to dwell on some of the major skills of micro-teaching which include; skill of reinforcement, skill of set induction, skill of instructional materials, skill of classroom control, Skill of chalkboard management, skill of closure, skill of stimulus variation, skill of questioning among others

 

The conducive environment for effective micro-teaching session (micro teaching clinic) is to be equipped with relevant and appropriate furniture and e-learning equipment, like appropriate Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system with camcorders staged at different angles to pick different behaviors of the trainee and the learners (Verma & Sharma ,in Audu, 2010). This is to enable the supervisor, presenter as well as other participants and members of the community to see the strength and weaknesses of the student-teacher at the point of presentation for immediate correction towards perfection. Furthermore, the student-teacher is trained to be aware of good environment as a correlate to effective and efficient process of teaching.

 

Experience has shown that, right from the introductory stage, a student teacher cannot demonstrate a sense of commitment in understanding the basic concept for micro-teaching as contained in the teacher training curriculum, of Colleges of Education titled Micro teaching theory and coded EDU 213 offered at NCE level. This factor is not far from the fact that right from the selection of institution, a candidates often disfavor teacher training institutions (College of Education),often selected as their last resort (JAMB, 2013). This might not be unconnected with the attitude of the members of the society toward teaching as a profession. The ability of the student teacher to transform an abstract idea into reality through the application of relevant as well as the appropriate instructional materials towards boosting their morale for effective comprehension of the lesson appears to be in-efficient. The researcher observed that the state of deprivation as well as deficiency in the application of Classroom Management technique which weaken the learner‟s attention as well as interest due to student teachers in efficiency in the application of skill of class control and un-conducive atmosphere makes the designed objectives not achievable.

 

Observation has shown that the microteaching skills which served as a fundamental principle of teaching are un-satisfactorily demonstrated by student teachers. This is seen in the weak application of micro-teaching skills of Chalkboard management by the student teacher which makes the performance in-sufficient in clear writing skill which leads to in effectiveness in drawing the learners attention.

 

The in-sufficient use of the skill of reinforcement as a means of encouragement by the student teacher as a result of the positive response in the course of teaching is not appropriately used. The process of drawing the attention of the learner to concentrates in teaching and learning activities and to make the lesson more captivating via the skill of set-induction is completely discouraging.

 

The effort of the student teacher to use the chalkboard towards effective summarization of the lesson to the learners during teaching and learning appears to be very low. The effort of the student teacher in the demonstration of the skills of Stimulus variation through different means of ensuring effective teaching and learning for effective acquisition of knowledge by the learner is absolutely low. A situation which could make the achievement of the designed objective not achievable. Similarly, the possibility of determining the volume of learners understanding through questioning skill during teaching learning process is very narrow. This makes it difficult for the student teacher to appraise the performance of the learner. The above mentioned teaching skills are mostly in-sufficiently and in-appropriately demonstrated by student- teachers, a situation which can lead to in-effectiveness and in-adequacy in discharging their duty of teaching and learning during teaching practice.

 

The problems in the manifestation of these skills constitute an integral obstacle in the quest for the realization of qualified (professional) and the achievement of Nigeria‟s philosophy of education (FGN, 2013, p56) which states that “teacher education shall continue to take cognizance of changes in methodology and in the curriculum. Teachers shall be regularly exposed to innovation in their profession. The in-efficient application of the required teaching skills generated a cardinal vacuum in a bid to produce competent workforce (personal)that would handle the pupils and the students at primary and post primary institution of learning. In addition, these limitations have frustrated and adversely affected the current drive towards producing professional teachers as contained in the National Policy on Education (2013, p56), which highlights that: “All teachers in educational institutions shall be professionally trained. Teacher education programme shall be structured to equip teachers for the effective performance of their duties. Information Technology (IT )training shall be incorporated into Faculties of Education ,Institutes of Education, National Teachers Institutes, School of Education in the Polytechnics etc., National Mathematical Center [NMC],National Institutes for Nigeria Language[NINLAN]

 

Similarly, Olaofe (2007) remarked that teacher quality has witnessed a steady decline from a large number of teachers who could make pupils to unlearn what they had accidentally learnt somewhere else. In addition, there is a general downfall in the number of professional teachers needed to teach in various institutions of learning in Nigeria.

 

The aforementioned problems collectively constitute serious setbacks towards effective performance during the teaching and learning process; and eventually they could hinder the attainment of the designed instructional objectives, during teaching practice programme. These have manifested doubt in the mind of the researcher especially in the efficiency of micro-teaching session in exposing student teachers undergoing teacher training programme. These and many other similar issues have necessitated the need to embark on this research.

 

1.2         Statement of the Problem

 

The essence of posting student- teachers for teaching practice is to enable them showcase the rich experience acquired during the theoretical and practical aspects of micro-teaching to the learners toward efficiency. It has been observed by the researcher that the skill of drawing learners attention towards learning activities via the skill of Set Induction as carried out by a student-teacher as acquired in the micro-teaching session is not passionately used.

 

The process of transforming theoretical knowledge into practical aspect is acquired during micro-teaching. Despite the period taken during micro-teaching session, student teachers are still found in-effective, in the use of skill of the instructional materials. Similarly, the ability of a student teacher in using the skill of controlling, coordinating, arranging and managing both the learners, the teaching materials and the non teaching materials for effective teaching and learning to take place is absolutely absent.

 

The poor use of skill of chalkboard management acquired during micro-teaching session by a student-teacher could lead to the display and mismanagement of teaching materials for the achievement of the designed objectives during teaching practice. However, student teachers thus find it very difficult to use the skill of stimulus variation, a situation which could cripple the effort of securing and sustaining learner‟s attention towards effective teaching and learning for effective service delivery. A teachers effectiveness in applying the questioning skill towards assessing the magnitude of learners comprehension is completely in-effective. Therefore, the ability of a student-teacher to effectively apply the acquired teaching skills for effective service delivery becomes very difficult. Situation which makes the performance of learners‟ handled by such a student-teacher to be weak, ineffective and inefficient.

 

Moreover, scanty performance of the student teachers in the demonstration of the relevant teaching skills in the teaching and learning situation has created serious problems in the attainment of designed learning experience during teaching practice session. Situation which stimulates parents, teachers-trainee, administrators, and ministry of education and National Commission of Colleges of Education (NCCE) in developing doubts about the competency of these categories of student teachers in transforming the learners‟ level of academic standard to an advance level.

 

Therefore, the aforementioned problems inform the need to conduct a study on impact of micro-teaching skills on student-teacher performance during teaching practice in colleges of education in Nigeria.

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study

 

The study sought to find out whether the micro-teaching session being one of the aspects of teacher training programme has effectively equipped the student-teacher with adequate skills that will enable them to discharge their duties effectively. Therefore, the study was designed to:

 

  1. examine the impact of skill of instructional materials on the ability of the student teachers in the North-west Geo-political Zone, Nigeria to make use of instructional materials during teaching practice

 

  1. identify the impact of skill of classroom control on the ability of the student teachers in the North-west Geo-political Zone, Nigeria to manage/control the classroom during teaching practice

 

  1. determine the impact of skill of chalkboard management on the ability of the student teachers in the North-west Geo-political Zone, Nigeria to manage the chalkboard during teaching practice

 

  1. examine the impact of the use of stimulus variation skill on the ability of student teachers in the North-west Geo-political Zone, Nigeria to vary stimulus during teaching practice.

 

  1. identify the impact of skill of Questioning on the ability of student teachers in the North-west Geo-Political Zone Nigeria to ask question during teaching practice.

 

1.4         Research Questions

 

The following research questions were raised and answered in the cause of the study.

 

  1. What is the impact of the skill of instructional materials on the ability of student teacher in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria to make use of skill of instructional material during teaching practice?

 

  1. What is the impact of the skill of the use of classroom control on the ability of student teachers in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria to Manage/Control the classroom during teaching practice?

 

  1. What is the impact of the skill of chalkboard management on the ability of student teachers in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria to manage chalkboard during teaching practice?

 

  1. What is the impact of the skill of stimulus variation on the ability of the student teachers in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria to vary stimulus during teaching practice?

 

  1. What is the impact of skill of Questioning on the ability of the student teachers in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria to ask questions appropriately during teaching practice?

 

 

1.5 Hypotheses
  The following research hypotheses were raised for the study:
1. The appropriate use of skill of instructional materials has no significant impact on the
  ability of the student-teachers in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria to make
  use of instructional materials during teaching practice.
2. The appropriate use of skill of classroom control has no significant impact on student
  teachers in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria ability to manage/control the
  class during teaching practice.

 

  • The appropriate use of chalkboard management skill has no significant impact on the student-teacher in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria ability to manage the chalkboard during teaching practice.

 

  1. The use of stimulus variation skill has no significant impact on the ability of the student-teacher in the North-West geopolitical zone, Nigeria to vary stimulus during teaching practice.

 

  1. The use of questioning skill has no significant impact on the ability of the student teacher in the North-west Geo-Political Zone Nigeria to ask questions appropriately during teaching practice.

 

1.6     Basic Assumptions

 

This study was carried out based on the assumptions that:

 

  1. All NCE students have participated in micro-teaching before going on .teaching practice.

 

  1. NCE students are exposed to divers teaching skills before being allowed to go on teaching practice.

 

  1. All the students exposed to micro-teaching skills are capable of active participation in teaching practice.

 

1.7         Significance of the Study

 

Microteaching is an integral component of teacher education programme. Therefore the result of this research could be of benefit to many stakeholders, such as student-teachers, in-service teachers curriculum planners, teacher trainers (lecturer and non academic staff), school administrators, NCCE as well as in-service teachers.

 

Firstly, the outcome of this research could assist in polishing student- teachers so as carryout their assignment, especially during Teaching-Practice exercise and after their graduation in order to be more proactive in providing an essential service expected of a professional teacher viz a viz impacting knowledge, managing, controlling, coordinating among others, in order to ensure effective service delivery and academic excellence.

 

Secondly, it could help tremendously in equipping student-teachers and in-service teachers with relevant information regarding the skill of teaching towards professionalization in the Nigeria as contained in the National Policy on Education(2013 p.56).

 

Thirdly, the result of this study could also help to a large extent in providing curriculum planners with adequate feedback concerning the effectiveness of micro-teaching in the Teacher Education Programme in preparation for teaching practice exercise at the NCE level, so as to assign it a compulsory status in the course design. Similarly, the result of the study will make the existing/ experience teachers see the need to be more committed in cooperating with the practicing teachers through guiding them in the course of discharging their duty.

 

Fourthly, the findings could assist teacher trainees in developing confidence in the usage of some of the skills thereby applying them in the normal classroom situation during teaching practice for effective teaching and learning to take place. That is, the practical pedagogical skills needed to promote and enhance good atmosphere in the classroom would be mastered by student teachers.

Fifthly, Provosts and Directors who head teacher training institutions in the country would also find the results of this study relevant as it would provide them with relevant information on the importance of micro-teaching as an alternative pedagogy for academic excellence. This would eventually enable them to be committed in ensuring that effective micro-teaching session is taking place in their respective institutions and be able to give all necessary support to the practicum session of micro-teaching, through ensuring adequate provisions of all its required for successful micro teaching viewing session and the practicum aspect to effectively take place prior to teaching practice exercise.

 

Sixthly, National Commission for Colleges of Education being a body that acridities teacher training institutions at sub-degree level; state and private colleges of education nationwide would benefit a lot from the outcome of the study through realization of the significant roles the programme provides in producing competent teachers that would effectively interpret the curriculum of primary schools curriculum in order to meet up with professional standards, especially in the provision of proper skills of teaching and learning.

Seventhly, the findings of the study could help in providing information to pre-service teachers, in-services teachers as well as government and non-governmental organizations and the general members of the society to make them see the need of the programme in producing competent/professional manpower to man the affairs of the respective teacher education institutions in the country by giving them the moral and financial support for successful discharge of their duty.

Finally, the study could also be significant to scholars as well as subsequent researchers as the findings would serve as a future reference material for further research elsewhere in related programme of national development. However, the result of the study will provide the general members of the society an insight on the need to give the student- teachers maximum cooperation to enable them showcase the acquired teaching skills for the attainment of the designed goals.

 

1.8 Scope of the Study

 

The study focused on the impact of micro-teaching skills on the Nigerian Colleges of education student performance in North-west Geo-political Zone, Nigeria. Specifically, an in depth research work was conducted on five (5) micro-teaching skills, which includes; the skill of Instructional materials, skill of Classroom control, skill of chalkboard management, skill of Stimulus variation, and Skill of Questioning.

However, the study is delimited to NCE three (3) students of 2015/16 session from Federal college of education Zaria, Kaduna State and Federal college of education Kano, Kano state.

 

IMPACT OF MICRO–TEACHING SKILLS ON NIGERIAN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION STUDENTS TEACHING PRACTICE PERFORMANCE IN NORTH-WEST GEO-POLITICAL ZONE, NIGERIA

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