ASSESMENT OF THE EFFECT OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT ON MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN EDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

 

This study assessed the effect of Positive Reinforcement on Mathematics Anxiety among Primary School Pupils in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara State. Two Counselling Techniques of Token Economy and Praise were used to address the problem of Mathematics Anxiety among Primary School Pupils in Edu Local Government Area of Kwara State The study employed quasi-experiment involving pre-test and posttest research design. Six research questions with corresponding null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study stood at 3,446 primary school pupils. Purposive sampling technique was used to draw 40 pupils from two primary schools. An instrument tagged Primary School Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (PSMARS) developed by Richard was adapted and used for the study. The study lasted for twelve (12) weeks in which 10 moderate mathematics anxiety subjects and 10 high mathematics anxiety subjects were treated using token economy and 10 moderate mathematics anxiety subjects and 10 high mathematics anxiety subjects were treated using praise technique. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions; t-test was used for testing hypotheses. Findings showed that positive reinforcement (token economy) had significant effect on both moderate and high mathematics anxiety at the p value of 0.000. Findings also revealed that positive reinforcement (praise technique) had significant effect on both moderate and high mathematics anxiety among primary school pupils at the p value of 0.000. Another finding indicated that there is differential effect of positive reinforcement techniques of token economy and praise across the two levels of moderate and high mathematics anxiety among primary school pupils at the p value of 0.005. Token economy was found to be more effective than praise techniques in the reduction of mathematics anxiety level. Recommendations made include: counselors, Psychologists and Teachers should use positive reinforcement such as token economy and praise to readdress the problem of anxiety for mathematics among primary school pupils.

ASSESMENT OF THE EFFECT OF POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT ON MATHEMATICS ANXIETY AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN EDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, KWARA STATE, NIGERIA

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