CAUSE AND SOLUTION OF HOOLIGANISM IN SPORTS EVENTS
Background to the Study
Secondary school is one of the levels of schooling in Nigeria made up of students who are predominantly in their early adolescent years between the ages 10-16 years. It is a place where young and talented athletes are scouted for and groomed up. It is also a place where new and potential talents are discovered most especially during inter-house sports competition and other sports events. Musa (2013) noted that secondary school age bracket constitute the critical period of acquisition and mastery of sports skills. This is a unique and fascinating period of human development. Therefore, a secondary school sport is seen as a promising setting to encourage adolescents to begin and maintain a physically active lifestyle. Sport is a vital and dependable weapon for all kinds of battles; it is today’s greater marketing instrument for political mass mobilization and for direct governance and anchorage for national and international unity. Sports is popular all over the world because of the diverse purpose they serve (Okenla, 2001).
Ademola (2012) stated that sports is a mirror of the society and it provides a touch stone for understanding how people live, work, think and play as well as serving as a barometer of a nation’s progress and civilization. Morakinyo (2009) observed that sports as a social phenomenon has grown from its humble beginning of being an entertainment and recreation to become a visible and prominent business phenomenon that could no longer be ignored in the social, political and economic environment of the nation. Salami (2009) regarded school sports as a component of the entire curriculum in which all the students should participate. The relevance and importance of school sports to national development has made sports development an aspect to the attainment of the goals of sports in the society.
In those days, over two decades ago, sports in secondary schools was very healthy, interesting and free of dangerous violence. It was full of funs, entertainment and enjoyment
(Onifade, 2011). It has a lot of benefits attached to it which include: bringing students together (unification), for a common course, promoting school pride, creating role model, forcing commitment to rules and regulations, promoting social control and school value (Awosike 2003). For this reason, over the years, attention has been focused on the development of sports in our society most especially in schools. Collins (2005) defined school sports development as a process whereby effective opportunities, process, system and structure are set up to enable and encourage people in all particular groups and areas to take part in sport for recreation or to improve their performance to whatever level they desire. There is sport development where there is increase in the number of students participation in sports (unification), increase in infrastructure, facilities and equipment and great interest in sport personnels such as coaches, physical education teachers, referees, team officials, sports organizers and sports administrators.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria Sports Development Policy (2009) defined school sports development as a process of continuous improvement of the school sports structure, institution and programmes in order to create a societal condition conducive to physical fitness for all and for effective functioning and self-actualization of one pupils or students. Schectime (2005) claimed that development must involve a movement from the old to the new and better ways of doing things in sports.
In spite of the role of sports in our contemporary society, overt behaviour by spectators/hooligans such as running onto the field, pulling down soccer goal posts, running away with ball, attempting to struggle with the opponent/players attempting to jump at an opponent, fighting and similar activities still give clue of what can lead to sports hooliganism
Anugwele (2012) added that sports hooliganism is sometimes caused by spectators who are mostly kinsmen. They aggressively rush into the playground in attempt to express dissatisfaction over poor officiating. In most cases as was earlier opined by Dunning (2000) communal crisis is generated which also can lead to serious injuries being sustained by contestants or spectators. The apparent explanation is that some people around the competition venue do become emotionally activated during certain types of sporting events and tend to become more aggressive in their overt behaviours during and after the game.
Eridunmin (2009) noted that hooliganism and violence remain crucial social issues in modern sports because sports are activities designed to create tension, violent ambition, and aggression rather than relieving or discharging it so that sports will be a patriarchal phenomenon in the society and not conflict between each other.
Recent literature have shown that sports hooliganism or violence is a serious problem observed in view of the numerous cases of sports riot and public disturbances among secondary schools (Debendotte, 2008, Oke, 2010). The concern was predicated upon the observation that while the standard of performance has improved tremendously, the level of sportsmanship has declined considerably due to the high ranking of sports hooliganism which has brought disrepute to the game of football especially in secondary schools in Delta State.
There are issues of harmful effects that are directly associated with sports which have caused lots of damage to sports in secondary schools in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State. Among these according to Bayo (2011) are winning syndrome, poor early planning and preparation, poor officiating, reward, politics, vengeance, fanaticism, breaking of the rules and regulations, partial officiating and others. In the words of Yole (2008) the issue of sports hooliganism is observable from the way media reports, label indiscipline in sports/sports violence on daily basis.
Some of the causes of sports hooliganism according to Yole (2008) were also experienced during the competition organized for secondary schools during inter-house sports activities. Wrong impressions were thus given to the organizers, athletes and officials with the notion that the referees officiated with bias. Idolor (2003) gave example of the football match played during the knockout stage between Emo-Eni Grammar School, Ellu and Iluelogbo Grammar School, Owhelogbo on 28th August, 2000 where the match was disrupted as the hooligans entered the field and took the ball away on allegations that the referee had the plan to send them out of the competition as demonstrated through the awarded penalty kick against Iluelogbo Grammar School, Owhelogbo at the start of such a crucial match. Following which officials and players were threatened by the hooligans and fanatics. Anyanwu (2006), stated that the yardstick for measuring how well a competitor performs in a game is his win and lose rate. Yole (2008) also cited that case of Chioma Ajunwa who was promoted from the rank of Inspector to Assistant Superintendent of Police for winning a gold medal for Nigeria during the Atlanta Olympic Games in the United State of America. Asagba (2001), saw hooliganism in sports as tragic and attributed sickness to the win at all cost philosophy. Ojeme (2000) similarly revealed that the Ghanaian Head of State Jerry Rawlings warned Ghanaian national team, the Black Stars not to return home if they failed to capture the Africa cup of nation in
Libya in “1982”.
Adbal (2009) identified the winning syndrome as a major problem that deprived youths the pleasure to participate in sports because the issue of sportsmanship seems to be something of the past. Ademola (2012) stated that hooliganism though not a cherished development in sport is as old as sport itself. It is generated from negative aggressive tendencies capable of making the victim to exhibit abnormal behaviour especially during tournament. According to Adisa (2009) hooliganism has reduce sports to a different phase and colour which makes it uninteresting and unless proper orientation and adequate security is employed, it will be very difficult to make sports lively as in other part of the country. It would be expedient that stakeholders – teachers, coaches, organizing secretaries, team officials, referees and sports administrators make every possible effort to demand acceptable social behaviour from participants including athletes during contests.
Statement of the Problem
There have been a lot of hooliganistic problems in Delta State especially in secondary schools sports which according to Idama (2011) have left people wondering about what the causes are. He also added that in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State, secondary schools sports have been recording high rates of vandalism as a result of violence perpetuated from hooliganism. These act of hooliganism cause alarm in the development of sports in the state secondary schools sports. Partial officiating, unqualified officiating officials, non-challant attitude of players and spectators, poor organization and execution of rules and regulations of the game by officials and organizers are the major causes of hooliganism in secondary school sports in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State which often times manifest in such overt behaviours such as running onto the field, pulling down soccer goal posts, running away with the ball, attempting to struggle with opponents, attempting to jump at an opponent, throwing of chairs and tables, fighting that lead to destruction of properties, injuries and even death (Duru, 2001). These issues and causes of hooliganism and violent behaviour in secondary schools sports need some drastic measures. The question that is pertinent therefore is: what are the likely strategies of curbing hooliganism in secondary schools sports in Delta South
Senatorial District of Delta State?
The following research questions were generated to guide the study.
- What are the common features of hooliganism in sports in secondary schools in Delta
South Senatorial District of Delta State?
- Will proper officiating be a strategy of curbing hooliganism in sports in secondary schools in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State?
- Will good architectural design of sport facility be a strategy of curbing hooliganism in sports in secondary school in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State?
- Will the ban on the sales of alcohol and drug around the sport arena be a strategy of curbing hooliganism in sports in secondary schools in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State?
- Will adequate sports funding be a strategy of curbing hooliganism in sports in secondary schools in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State?
- What are the indices of sports development in secondary schools in Delta South
Senatorial District of Delta State?
- To what extent has sports hooliganism affected the development of sports in secondary schools in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State?
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to identify the various strategies of curbing hooliganism in secondary schools in order to develop sports in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State. Specifically, the study intends to:
- Assess the role of proper officiating be a strategy of curbing hooliganism in secondary schools in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State.
- Determine the extent to which good architectural design of sport facility be a strategy of curbing hooliganism in secondary schools sports in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State.
- Determine the extent to which the ban on the sales of alcohol and drug around the sports venue be a strategy of curbing hooliganism in secondary schools sports in Delta South
Senatorial District of Delta State.
- Find out the extent to which adequate sports funding be a strategy of curbing
hooliganism in secondary school sports in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State.
- Assess the extent to which causes of hooliganism has affected the development of sports in secondary schools sports in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State.
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study would be significant to secondary schools sports organizers, sports administrators, officials, spectators, enthusiasts, coaches, trainers, physical educators and all stakeholders in the sports industry in Delta South Senatorial District and beyond as it would proffer strategies for curbing hooliganism in secondary schools sports. It would also be significant to Ministry of Education, Post Primary Education Board as well as secondary school principals as it would create awareness on causes of hooliganism in secondary schools sports and the possible strategies of curbing it.
The findings would also assist in creating educational awareness on the negative effects of the sale of alcohol and other drugs around sports venues. It will also help to expose the facts that misjudgment by ignorant spectators lead to abnormal behaviours, protests or crisis during sporting events.
The study has shown how proper/careful records of achievement, use of security, ban on alcohol and drug intake before and after competition can help to restrain hooliganism in secondary schools sports particularly in Delta South Senatorial District in Delta State.
It will help to modify people’s behaviour towards sports competitions by creating good knowledge, on how best to curb hooliganism in sports because it is not the result of the competition that matters but participation and spirit of sportsmanship. Furthermore, the study added to knowledge especially when it is based on the various strategies of curbing sports hooliganism in sports management in general and to schools and societies in particular.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The study was carried out to identify strategies of curbing hooliganism in secondary schools for sports development in Delta South Senatorial District of Delta State. This study was therefore delimited to twenty-four (24) selected secondary schools from the eight (8) Local Government Area in Delta South Senatorial District in Delta State.
The study was delimited to the use of questionnaire which was administered on secondary schools principals, vice principals, teachers, as well as gamesmasters/mistresses, deemed to be the respondents for the study.
The study was also delimited to such variables as; causes of hooliganism on sports development, officiating, design of sports facilities, ban on sale of alcohol and drugs around the sports facility and inadequate funding.
It was delimited to the use of frequency counts, percentage, means and standard deviation as a statistical technique to answer the research questions.
Limitation of study
In the process of carrying out this study, some constraints were observed by the researcher. These include among others, in some of the schools, getting information was difficult as the authorized persons were not readily available while some teachers found were reluctant to supply the accurate information about their schools.
Operational Definition of Terms
- Crowd control: Ability to limit the number of a large interest group of people gathered together.
- Development: To improve in what is already existing.
- Secondary school: Refers to a second level of education where children go to be educated.
- Sports hooliganism: Refers to destruction of school properties and disturbance during school sports/events.
- Sportsmanship: This means fair play or ability to accept defeat and winning during competition.
CAUSE AND SOLUTION OF HOOLIGANISM IN SPORTS EVENTS