ANALYSIS OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL BUSINESS STUDIES SYLLABUS APPLICATION IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
This study assessed the Assessment of Junior Secondary Business Studies Curriculum Implementation in Plateau State, Nigeria. The study was guided by four research objectives among which were to identify the funding strategies adopted by government for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state. Fourcorrespondingresearch questions and four research hypotheses were formulated in line with the research objectives. Relevant literatures were reviewed with(9) empirical studies in line with the key variables of the study and theoretical framework. Descriptive survey design was adopted in the study using a population of 509 academic staff. Stratified random sampling technique was used in selecting a sample of 300 respondents representing 59% of the population. Questionnaire and observation schedule were used for data collection in the study. The research instrument was pilot tested and subjected to a reliability test using Cronbach Alpha statistics showing a coefficient of 0.847. Descriptive statistics suchas mean and standard deviation was used to answerresearch questions while all the four hypotheses were tested using Chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. Findings from the study revealed that the budgetary allocation to educational institutions, fees/levies paid by students among others, formsthe major source of funds to secondary schools for the implementation of Business Studies Curriculumin Plateau State. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made among others that; funds allocated to schools should be diversified and easily accessible to schools for the implementation of business studies curriculum in Plateau state. In view of the above recommendation, the study offer the following contribution to knowledge amongstthat funds are generated through budgetary allocation and fess/levies paid by students and that it will interest thegovernment, parents and spirited individuals to see implementation of school curriculum as a shared responsibilityof allto raise the expected funds needed for the procurement of equipment and furniture such as computers and typewriters.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Curriculum implementation in reality at the public school level implies a situation where government provides basic infrastructural facilitiessuch as funds, classrooms, instructional materials, human material, monitoring and evaluation of curricula activities. The school principals being the instructional leaders in the schools is charged with the responsibility of utilising both human and material resources availablein the school and tailored them towards the provision of quality education. Teachers are the most instructional agents at the final stage of curriculum implementationthat translates the reality of the developed curriculum guided by predetermined educational objectives whileparents are to complements the government and schools in discharging its legitimate activities to enhance effective curriculum implementation.Initially,that was what exactly existed in the past,and it is very raretoday in Plateau state presently which attention needs to be given to that effect for the purpose of bringing back the glory of education. Effective and efficient implementation of Business studies curriculumin junior secondary schools is determined byclear statement of objectives, well defined sources of funds available to schools, use of appropriate teaching methods andavailability of instructional materials.
The objectives of business studiesincorporated in the National Policy on Education is tailored towards developing students‟ elementary business knowledge and operational skills for future use; develop basic skills in office education; prepare for further training in business related studies; develop orientation and basic skills for starting life for those who cannot go beyond junior secondary school level(Aliyu, 2001
NERDC, 2013). However, for these objectives to befully realizedat this level of education, appealed to government and itsagencies to considerthe procurement ofrecommendedfunctional curriculum materials and equitable distribution to schools on the basis of students‟ ratiosvery paramount. From observation in Plateau state, 65% of theyouths attendedpublic secondaryschools under dilapidated classrooms without qualitative instructional materials for the implementation of business studies curriculum. The success or failure of senior secondary school independent commercial subjects and management courses at the tertiary institutions depends on the achievement of business studies objectives at the junior secondary school level. The problem of unemployment cannot be resolved in developing countries like Nigeria, unless the youths are properly trained in line with the skills in view nationally to develop positive thinking amongst the children for self-reliance.
To achieve this,calls forconcerted efforts of government at all levelsto put all hands on deck to fashion out a means of pumping money in the education sector for the development of business studies programmesand possibly other fields of endeavours. Fundsaccrued for the implementation of business studies and other subjects largely comes from the state government,parent‟s teachers association (PTA) and other donations from spirited individuals and corporations. It is assumed Plateau state government are not up to date inremitting its share of counterpart‟s fundingaccredited to
them to access more funds designated for the development of business studiescurriculum.A fund is a life wire and the indices of the achievement of any educational objectives which guarantees efficient procurement of basic equipment. As the case in Plateau state prior to the period this study was conducted, no public secondary schools can boost of having oneor more functional manual typewriter for teaching of business studies which is obviously caused bypoor sources of income available to schools to procure practical equipment.
The problem of inappropriate teaching method contributes significantly to poor exhibition of lifelong skills distorting basicrudiments for creative thinking and the development of vocational attitudesamong its beneficiaries. Students‟ can be motivated to learn as much as possible many skillsin business studies when appropriate teaching method is strictly adhered to and implemented in teaching learning process. The researcher realized from experience that the use of innovative teaching methods in the implementation of business studiesin junior secondary schools has beengiven lesser attention while teacher‟s centred method seems to be more teachers friendly. The engagement of learner‟s centred method and its teaching strategies in the implementation of business studies curriculum is crucial in the attainment of set objectives. Teachers are always criticized forusing inappropriate teaching methods which end up rendering business studies lesson uninteresting and boring tostudents‟.
Teaching facilities are spice to teaching/learning processes; teaching is as interesting as the resources that are used to facilitate it. Federal Government of Nigeria (2007) recommended instructional materials for implementing business studies curriculumto include; relevant textbooks, teacher‟s guide book, students‟ personal experiences, examples drawn from local business environment, relevant resource persons, chalkboard, pictures, real business documents or specimens like cheque books, radio programmes, video programmes, films, newspaper cuttings and relevant magazines. From experience,teachers implement the curriculum singlehandedly without involving the students and other prominent resource personswithin the community to be participated in sourcing for local instructional materials and at certain occasion invited toclarify some important issues that will be of benefits to the students. It is against this background that this study is conducted to embark on the assessment of junior secondary school business studies curriculum implementation in Plateau state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Curriculum implementation in public secondary schools is done haphazardly by relevant authorities such as government, teachers and parents who are said to be the major custodians of school curriculum. Failure on the side of government in meeting with some of its statutory obligations posed serious challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in public secondary schools in Plateau and Nigeria at large. The situation of infrastructural facilities and instructional facilities in public secondary schools in Plateau state is very bad that teachers are left with the alternative of implementing business studies without the required equipment.No iota of change from 6-3-3-4 system of education to the present system of education is on ground to show the level of government preparedness in achieving the the objectives of 9-year basic education in business studies.
In addition, problem of poor performance of students in junior secondary schoolsin business studies examination in Plateau often advertised on mass media could be linked to shortage of funds for the procurement of computers, typewriters and other relevant equipment for practical operation. Practical in junior secondary school certificate examination business studies is compulsory in typewriting and shorthand segmentswhich carries 40% marks. Thus, from past experience, public secondary schools which offer business studies do not have basic practical equipment.The problem is, it is possible for schools which do not participated in business studies practical to benefit from 40% marks allocated for practical. If the answer is yes or no, indicated that students final scores in junior secondary school certificate examination could be weighted based on what isobtained in theory which is a matter of great concern here.
Similarly, there is widespread recognition that teachers aremore accustomed to lecture method more than other teaching methods in the implementation of business studies primarily because they felt it consumes them less time to execute it. Lecture method has been criticized in teaching of business studies because it makes the teachermore active and rendered the learners passive and inactive during the entire teaching situation. The problem with the implementation of business studies is that teachers ignored the use of innovative teaching methods recommended in teaching of business studies such as demonstration, role play; play way, problem solving and discussion method. Skills in business studies cannot beacquired through the use of inappropriate teaching methods and hence meaning learning cannot be possible in the
Curriculum implementation relies heavily on the quality and the quantity of instructional materials ready for use. The researcher discovered in some of the public secondary schools visited before conducting this study offering business studies. lacks instructional materials for teaching of business studies. The instructional materials available for used are out datedand it is not in any way relevant to the present system of education.Only few public secondary schools have libraries stocked with obsolete textbooks and materials that are out of use to the students and teachers any more. For the objective of business studies to be realized, all these lingered problems arising from one problem to the otherneeds to be logically addressed in respect to that areasto enable the students‟ to be properly trained that prompted the researcher to embarked on the assessment of junior secondary school business studies curriculum implementation in Plateau State, Nigeria with the aim of identifying possible solution using empirical evidences.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to:
- identify the funding strategies adopted by government for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state;
- determine the appropriateness of teaching method adopted by teachers for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in
- investigate the effectiveness of teaching materials used for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state; and
- determine challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state.
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the aforementioned objectives, the following research questions guided the study:
- What funding strategies have been adopted by the government for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state?
- What is the appropriateness of teaching method adopted by teachers for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state?
- What is the effectiveness of instructional materials used for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state?
- What are the current challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated for the study
|H01:||There is no significant difference in the response mean of principals and business studies teachers on the funding strategies adopted by government for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state.|
|H02:||There is no significant difference in the response mean of principals and business studies teachers on the appropriateness of teaching method adopted by teachers for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state.|
|H03:||There is no significant difference in the response mean of principals and business studies teachers on the effectiveness of instructional materials used by teachers for the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state.|
|H04:||There is no significant difference between the response mean of principals and business studies teachers on challenges to the implementation of business studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Plateau state.|
|1.6||Significance of the Study|
|This study will benefit the following; State Ministry of education/Universal|
Basic Education Board, Curriculum planners, researchers, members of the Society and teacher/students.
Officials of the Plateau State Ministry of Education and the Universal Basic Education Board will benefit from the findings of this study as it would provide information that would serveas a basis fordeveloping appropriate policy formulation that would provide possiblesolutions to some of the problems hindering the realization of business studies objectives. The results of the study will enable Universal Basic Education Board to refer other matters to the Ministry of Education for prompt action to be taken to create a good atmosphere of teaching business studies with well-stock equipment and other basic infrastructural facilities. This study intended to send copies of itsresearch work to the Plateau State Ministry of Education and the state library board for use. Alternatively, soft copy of this work will be made available on the internet for public access.
The result of this research will be of immense importance to curriculum planners as it will identify key lingering curriculum inadequacies that has over the years stood as a barrier in the achievement of business studies objectives in junior secondary school level which will guide curriculum designers find a means of making the problem known to the Ministry of Education for slight adjustment to be reflected in the curriculum toovercome the challenges. The findings of this study will provide information to curriculum planners being intermediaries between federal government, teachers and to createpossible awareness campaign to members of the society to debunked the notion perceived about business studies that it is not a brainstorming subject to be widely accepted like any other subjects in the school curriculum.
The result of this study will serve as a source document to researchers in business education programme and other related fields of endeavours with useful information concerning the study which can be obtained from the internet and libraries without any stress. The study will serve as literature materials to on-going researchers examining related variables andthe findings obtained in this study will interest newly researchers from different areasto extend similar investigation in their respective statesto compare the level of operationin relation to differences in research findings obtained to diversify knowledge. The findings of this study will as well enable other variables delimitated in this study to be used by other researchers to conduct similar research for diversification of knowledge.
The findings of this study will be useful in enlightening members of the society on the contribution of business studies subject to the individual, to the society, todiscredit societal perception labelled on business studies and to erase completely the stigmatization wrongly perceived about the subject to enable the subject gain popularity like any other subjects in the school curriculum. The study will provide useful information to the members of the society to create an indisputable awareness to conceive curriculum implementation as a shared responsibility of government, principals, teachers, spirited individuals and parents towards ensuring effective curriculumimplementation in all the schools.The result of the study will enable the parents to checkmate teacher‟s activities and cooperate with the school in terms of financing the school for the procurement of instructional materials and equipment for practical.
The study would provideinformation that will enable relevant stakeholders to take proactive measures that willbe of benefits to thestudents‟ by adequately deploying qualitative instructional materials missing in schools for effective implementation of business studies curriculum. The school will benefits from the findings of this research as it will guide the school in the selection and procurement of appropriate instructional facilities/materials needed for the implementation ofbusiness studies to enhance the performance of students in junior secondary school certificate examination and equip the students‟with the necessary business skills to make them self-reliance and contribute to the development of Plateau state and to our great nation Nigeria.
Finally, the findings of this study will be useful information to classroom teacher as it would pinpoint the use of innovative teaching methodsas thebest in teaching of business studies which compactable instructional materials to suit a particular component area of business studies. The study will also buttress other teaching techniques that teachers can integrate with teaching methods to deliver their lesson appropriately. The study will create awareness for teachers to be resourceful in their work through actively engaging the students and members of the society in the improvisation of instructional materials to make their work more easily and participatory.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study is confined to business studies teachers, vocational education teachers and principals covering five (5) areas directorate of education zones from Central Senatorial Zone of Plateau state including Pankshin, Mangu, Bokkos, Kanam and Kanke from 2016-2018 being the period this study was conducted. Business studies teachers, vocational studies teachers and principal were chosen in this study because they had past teaching experiences which place them in better position to respondto the questionnaire items. The study is further limited to funds, teaching methods, instructional facilities and problem to curriculum implementation of business studies which constituted the variables of this study.
ANALYSIS OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL BUSINESS STUDIES SYLLABUS APPLICATION IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA