COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC STUDIES SYLLABUS APPLICATION IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZARIA EDUCATIONAL ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
This study compared the implementation of Islamic studies curriculum in private and public secondary schools in Zaria Educational Zone, Kaduna state. The objectives of the study include comparison of: the curricular used in public and private secondary schools; differences that exist in public and private secondary schools in terms of quality and number of Islamic studies teachers; time allotted to Islamic studies subject; assessing the methods used in teaching the subject in private and public secondary schools; extent of students assessment academically and morally and to determine extent teaching methods promote morality and social interaction. The research design used was a descriptive survey which is desirable in reaching all the sampled respondents. The population consisted of all Islamic studies teachers and principals in both public and private secondary schools in Kaduna state. The population of the study is 108 teachers, from which 86, Islamic studies teachers were sampled in Zaria Educational Zone, Kaduna state. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire comprising of two main parts, consisting of 69 items. The data collected was analyzed using the computer statistical package for the social sciences IBM 20. The descriptive statistics were used to analyze the bio data and response to research questions while t-test inferential statistics was used to test the research hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The main findings of the study include that: teachers in public schools are better qualified than teachers in private schools; that the curriculum is uniformly provided by the government for all secondary schools in Kaduna state; number of periods for Islamic studies in public and private schools are sufficient to cover the scheme of works by the teachers; the methods of teaching employed in private schools are not as adequate as those of public schools, and that there is difference in terms of assessment strategies in public and private schools; publics and private schools both agreed the Islamic studies teaching methods and process promote morality. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the teaching of Islamic studies in private schools should be improved to meet up with what obtained in the public schools and the set standards. The study recommended among others, based on the above findings that: government should pay more attention to the teaching of the standard Islamic studies curriculum in private schools as it does in public senior secondary schools; the methodology employed in teaching Islamic studies in private and public schools, should be harmonized and well supervised.
1.3 Background to the Study
Education is perhaps the most influential social institution in any society. The role of schooling is to transmit the common set beliefs, values, norms, and ways of understanding from the adult members of a society to its youth. Muslims worldwide share a common set of values based on the Qur‟an and sunnah of prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). It is a function of Islamic schools and parents to teach these values to Muslim students through the use of well designed curricular.
Parents in Muslim countries are increasingly looking to Islamic schools as a source of education for their children. Indeed, with the mandate of education for all, and the millions of children who attend Qur‟anic or other forms of Islamic schools. Many governments are beginning to put effort on how to define acceptable minimum standards for Islamic schools, such that their pupils may be counted among the children enrolled in “schools” (example, public, private and other recognized schools) and receiving quality basic education. This is certainly the case in Nigeria, where the public, private and private Islamic school sectors are growing and not just in the Muslim north of the country. (USAID, 2006).
In Nigeria, three main educational traditions; viz the indigenous, Islamic and western, are known to have flourished at various times. Each type of education served its purpose for consumers but also had its problems. However, Islamic studies was formalized in the western type of schools (both public and private schools). Islamic education started at local Qur‟anic schools, and in Nigeria Islamic schools especially in the north, now compete with public schools because they offer a full range of subjects in addition to standard religious instruction.
The archetype of traditional Islamic education across the Middle East, Africa including Nigeria was a one-room school, with a male teacher and several assistants (graduates of this school or advance older students) who taught children the memorization of Qur‟an through a combination of copying activities and memorization. In Nigeria, there are still many traditional
Qur‟anic schools like the model described above. A significant number of such schools transformed themselves into “Islamiyya schools” by upgrading their curriculum and expanding it to teach a wider range of subjects. Many have jettisoned their old pedagogical techniques in favour of age group classes, whole group instruction and examinations used in the public schools. In Nigeria these type of schools, which are still generally community financed and managed, have flourished and are proving to be a popular alternative to the public schools for Muslim. Secondary education according to National policy on education 4th edition (2004) stated that it‟s the education children receive after primary education and before the tertiary stage. The broad goals of secondary education shall be to prepare the individual for: useful living within the society; and higher education.
To achieve the objectives of the secondary school education, Islamic studies has been identified as one of the subjects that should be taught. The senior secondary school Islamic studies curriculum, spells out four broad objectives to be achieved at the end of its implementation. These according to Federal Ministry of Education (1985), in Ajidagba (2005:4) are to:
Prepare the students spiritually, morally, socially, and intellectually for his role as a
Muslim in the world which he is entering;
Give him an insight into the broad view of Islam in both the past and the present;
Help him to further his studies of Islam both formally and otherwise throughout life in accordance with the saying of the prophet (S.A.W): “Seek knowledge from the cradle to the grave”; and
Enable him to practice properly all his religious duties.
The well-articulated objectives of secondary education cannot be achieved if all the issues involved in implementation of curriculum at secondary education level are not addressed squarely. Curriculum implementation in secondary schools, involve provision of facilities which will aid the development of effective and conducive learning experiences, funding, teachers qualification etc. The issues at stake are: How can these facilities be provided? To what extent are the available facilities being used for effective implementation at secondary school level? We also have teacher‟s participation in decision making and curriculum implementation; teachers are deliberately neglected when major decisions on education and matters concerning their welfare are taken. There are other curriculum implementation issues at secondary school which involve; adequate qualified teachers; funding or financing the educational system; application of information and communication technology; motivation of teachers to mention but few.
Private and public secondary schools in Kaduna state, implement and posses one single curriculum under the same educational system. Private schools which are seen as independent schools or non-state schools are not administered by local, state or national government but they retain the right to select their students. While public schools are also seen as state schools and generally refers to all primary or secondary schools mandated or provided for all children by the government, whether national, local or regional administration of civil government and paid for, in whole or in part by state. The term may also refer to institutions of post secondary education. Therefore the study is aiming to compare the teaching and learning of Islamic studies to bring out the similarities as well as differences and provide possible majors on how to manage the affair of Islamic studies curriculum implementation in both public and private senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
1.4 Statement of the Problem
Islamic studies curriculum implementation at secondary school level in both private and public schools in Kaduna State is in a uniform form, both the curricular design, comprising; content, syllabus, methodology and evaluation processes are equal and carried out at same degree level. According to Ajidagba (2005: 4) “In any curriculum planning endeavour, goal setting which is also known as selection or formulation of aim, goals and objectives, is the first and crucial stage on which all other stages depend. Therefore, Islamic studies curriculum implementation carried the same degree level of activities in both private and public schools, and using the same methodology, since it deals with same dispcline of study and implementation of no differential inclination.
Unfortunately, the implementation of Islamic studies curriculum at secondary school in Kaduna state could be said to be incomplete, in the sense that syllabus within the allotted periods are not completed at various levels; this is inline with what Mohd Sani (2006) attributed the issues to the lack of qualified teachers for proper implementation, periods allotted not sufficient for the coverage of the expected teachings, contents in curricular and syllabus not covered, there are also congested classrooms with students combine in single classes sitting on bare floors in some public schools not as in private. Moreover, the issue of having standard text books to guide the teachers to develop a kind of uniform work through the syllabus guide is not applicable. Rather a teacher is given free hand or assigned to use any textbook to handle the case, even if it does not comply with what the curriculum and syllabus content is all about. Despite that all curriculum contents are being design and one single curriculum was in control.There have been observed by teacher that, there is a degree of differences pertaining curriculum implementation at secondary school level between the Public and Private schools, in some cases private schools are using contents or books which does not comply with the curriculum content designed by the stipulated Islamic studies curriculum.
In Kaduna state the Educational Research Center (ERC), has brought harmonized syllabus and scheme of work. The harmonized scheme of work which is base on the National Educational Research and Development Centre (NERDC) curriculum has been develop in all subjects including Islamic studies. The use of the harmonized scheme of works is mandatory for all state schools but not so for federal and private schools in Kaduna state.
The question therefore is, to what extent are the private and pubic schools in Kaduna state are using such curriculum. Isiaku (2008: 120) observed base on the problem of particular study, he added that; “the private school administrators and proprietor‟s adherence to the regulations of the educational policies with the state and at national level through government control could enhance the implementation of the Islamic studies curriculum in the secondary schools.”
Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which implementation of secondary school Islamic studies is being carried out, and to investigate the differences in private and public schools, on the implementation activities and qualification of teachers employed, so as to provide effective teachers at secondary school level and their will be no any differential inclinations between the public and private schools in any sense. Students also will be uniformly provided with the knowledge of Islamic studies as being design by the stipulated Islamic studies curriculum.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study sought to achieve the following objectives:
- compare the Islamic studies curriculum used in both public and private senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
- determine whether difference exist between the teachers‟ quality and quantity employed to teach Islamic studies in public and private secondary schools in Kaduna state.
- compare the time allotted to the teaching and learning of Islamic studies in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
- assess the methods used for teaching Islamic studies in public and private schools in
- examine the extent to which students are assessed academically and morally in public and private secondary schools in Kaduna state.
- determine the extent to which the teaching methods promote morality in public and private secondary schools in Kaduna state.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were raised to guide this study:
- how different is the Islamic studies curriculum content used in public and private senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
- what are the difference in the quality and quantity of teachers employed to teach Islamic studies in public and private senior secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- what are the difference in the time allotted for teaching Islamic studies in public and private secondary schools?
- what are the methods used for teaching Islamic studies in public and private senior secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- to what extent are students in public and private schools assessed academically and morally?
- to what extent do the teaching method and process promote morality?
The following hypotheses were formulated for the study:
- there is no significant difference in the curriculum content used in public and private senior secondary schools.
- there is no significant difference between the quality and quantity of teachers employed to teach Islamic studies in public and private schools in Kaduna state.
- there is no significant difference in the time allotted for the teaching of Islamic studies in public and private schools.
- there is no significant difference in the methods used by public and private schools for the teaching of Islamic studies.
- there is no significant difference in the extent to which students are assessed academically and morally.
- the teaching method and process have no significant impact on the morality of students in
public and private schools.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study was conducted on the assumption that:
- all Islamic studies teachers are qualified to teach Islamic studies at senior secondary school level in Kaduna state.
- curriculum was uniformly provided by the government, and all schools irrespective of public, private and others adhered to the same and abide by the national policy on education system.
- students are assessed equally using the same assessment strategies at gradual and final examinations.
- professional qualified and morally sound Islamic studies teachers influence and made great impact on students‟ performance academically and spiritually.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study is significant in the following ways:
The study will provide curriculum planners an insight on how public and private schools are implementing Islamic studies curriculum to overlook or re-plan the curriculum itself in order to make adjustment and take possible measures on how to harmonize with other interfering curricular. Highlight to school administrators the differences and similarities in the implementation of Islamic studies curriculum in public and private schools, in order to know where the differences exist and why some of them are lacking behind from their counterparts, thereby employing possible measures to caution school heads, proprietors and other bodies concern such as educational zonal offices, examination bodies, students/teachers etc to map-out all disparities in administration of both public and private schools. It will give the government and policy makers an insight on how public and private schooling system is taking place in the state and country at large in order to pay more attention and introduce effective supervisory measures set to look into the affairs of public, private as well as voluntary organizations activities to conform with the standard national policy and ministry of education system in the country.
The study will be of great benefits to teachers and students-teachers to know how to successfully implement the Islamic studies curriculum and the role they are to play in the implementation activities, thereby giving them a clear and conscious measures to adjust and take possible corrections. The study will be of great benefit to students and researchers, as the work will be as a reference when it comes to issues related to the topic of concern, to build upon their works.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study compared Islamic studies curriculum implementation in public and private senior secondary schools in Zaria Educational Zone, Kaduna state. The study covered both male and female teachers of Islamic studies. Moreover, the study was delimited to the implementation of Islamic studies curriculum in Sabon Gari and Zaria local government areas of Kaduna state.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC STUDIES SYLLABUS APPLICATION IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZARIA EDUCATIONAL ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA