AN EXAMINATION OF THE AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING-LEARNING OF GEOGRAPHY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS
1.1 Background Of The Study
Education is a kind of learning in which an individual’s knowledge, abilities, and habits are passed down from generation to generation via teaching, training, and research. Any encounter that has a formative influence on one’s thinking, feeling, or behavior may be considered “educational.” Additionally, the primary purpose of schooling and the teaching of any particular subject is to educate the persons participating in education to achieve the educational objectives and goals. Thus, geography as a subject contributes to the educational objectives and goals and may be seen as an essential instrument for individual and societal growth. Knowledge of geography, in particular, aides a person in acquiring the art of their cultural heritage. Contemporary geographers such as Carl Ritter often assert that it is a crucial precondition for healthy citizenship.
The Greek scholar Eratosthenes (200BC) coined the term “Geography” from the Greek “Geographia,” which translates as “earth description.” As a science, geography is the discipline of the distribution and description of all materials on the earth’s surface, as well as the interactions between people and their environment, which encompasses both physical and cultural/human geographic traits.
However, comprehension of the geography subject is highly dependent on the effectiveness with which it is presented. Chilars (2013) underlined the need of using instructional materials effectively to support successful teaching of any subject (especially geography). In accordance with this, Coombs (1970) identified two components of education, which he categorised as “Inputs” and “Outputs.” He views human and material resources (i.e., instructional materials) as inputs, while outputs are seen as the teaching-learning/educational process’s objectives and results. Instructional materials (educational inputs) are critical to the teaching of any subject in the school curriculum, but notably geography. Wales (2013) believed that the usage of instructional materials in the teaching would help students retain newly acquired knowledge. Similarly, Saboury (2015) asserted that a well-planned and imaginative use of visual aids (instructional materials) in lessons can significantly reduce apathy, compensate for the inadequacy of books, and pique students’ interest and motivation by providing them with something practical while also assisting them in developing their capacity for discovery learning.
Additionally, instructional materials are intended to enhance the quality of education and facilitate the successful comprehension of any subject. As a result, geography instructors must examine instructional materials before to using them. This may be achieved by thoroughly comprehending the materials, preparing the setting in which they will be utilized, and preparing the students/learners by ensuring that the materials spark their interest and motivate them (Marcus, 2014). Additionally, the efficacy of using proper instructional materials for teaching secondary school geography is contingent on the instructor’s quality. Because the instructor cannot offer all of the circumstances essential for an efficient teaching and learning process, additional instructional materials should be given. To guarantee the quality and efficacy of education and materials, more competent, experienced, and certified geography instructors are needed.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Although much research has been conducted on the role of instructional materials in geography teaching and learning, some unsolved concerns remain (Majasan, 2009, Abesida, 2003, and Ajaebuna, 2007). The need to explore locally accessible materials as a substitute for the grossly unavailable materials in our schools implies that the teacher’s resourcefulness must be aligned with the learners’ curriculum and surroundings in order to avoid classroom teaching being hampered by a lack of funding. Thus, the government must endeavor to create indigenous technology in all of its manifestations, since geography is concerned in holistically resolving man’s issues (Ijaduola, 2014). Numerous authors in geography have highlighted the glaring lack of instructional materials, as well as teachers’ views regarding their use in classroom teaching-learning circumstances (Majasan, 2009, Abesida, 2003, and Ajaebuna, 2007). Thus, this research aims to discover instructional materials that are necessary for successful geography teaching and learning in senior secondary school, as well as their influence on students’ performance in Geography.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the availability and utilization of instructional materials for effective teaching-learning of geography in senior secondary schools. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Ascertain whether instructional material promotes effective teaching and learning of Geography in secondary schools.
- Identify the instructional material required for effective teaching and learning of Geography in secondary schools.
- Determine extent which the required instructional materials are made available in secondary schools.
- Ascertain whether teachers make use of instructional materials in teaching of Geography in secondary schools.
1.4 Research Question
In the course of this study, the following questions will be addressed;
- Does instructional materials promote effective teaching and learning of Geography in secondary schools?
- What are the instructional material required for effective teaching and learning of Geography in secondary schools?
- What is the extent to which the required instructional materials are made available in secondary schools?
- Does teachers make effective use of the instructional materials in teaching of Geography in secondary schools?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The study’s relevance is to establish the value of visual instructional materials in the teaching and learning of geography, as well as to demonstrate how both the instructor and the student may adjust or improvise instructional materials to maximize learning goals. The research would be critical for the ministry of education and for society as a whole. It will undoubtedly aid in the identification of fundamental instructional materials for the teaching and learning of geography. This is also critical for senior secondary students, as it will aid in identifying instructional materials that are missing in senior secondary schools and ensuring that they are provided.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study is structured to generally examine the availability and utilization of instructional materials for effective teaching-learning of geography in senior secondary schools. However, the study will further ascertain whether instructional material promotes effective teaching and learning of Geography in secondary schools, identify the instructional material required for effective teaching and learning of Geography in secondary schools, determine extent which the required instructional materials are made available in secondary schools, and ascertain whether teachers make use of instructional materials in teaching of Geography in secondary schools.
Thus, the respondents for this study will be obtained from selected senior secondary schools in Eboyin State.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Instructional Materials: These involve any aid (audio or visual) used by the teacher to facilitate effective understanding of Geography lesson (including the teacher himself).
Senior Secondary School: This means the upper basic classes four (4), five (5), and six (6), which corresponds to SSI, SSII and SSIII respectively.
Geography: This is the study of places and the relationships between people and their environments.