COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CHEMICALLY-TREATED POWDERED AND UN-POWDERED RICE HUSKS

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CHEMICALLY-TREATED POWDERED AND UN-POWDERED RICE HUSKS

ABSTRACT

Biogas production was carried out using fresh powdered rice husk (PRH), un-powdered rice husk (URH) and a blend of both (CRH) in the ratio 1:1. They were left to degrade for 73 days before predecaying in water. The pre-decayed wastes were found to be acidic. Consequently, a concentratedsolution of potassium hydroxide (KOH, 50%w/v) in acetic acid (CH3COOH, 99% v/v) was used to treat the wastes to achieve waste stabilization and neutrality. The pre-decayed, chemically treated rice husks were charged separately as; powdered rice husk (P-RH), un-powdered rice husk (U-RH) and combined rice husks (C-RH) (which is a combination of P-RH and U-RH 1:1) into metal prototype biodigesters of 50 L capacity in the ratio of approx. 2:1 of water to waste.

They were all subjected to anaerobic digestion under a 31 day retention period and mesophilic temperature range of 24 to 42°C. Results of volume of gas yield from the different digesters indicated that the P-RH had a cumulative gas yield of 140.60 ± 2.12 L/ total mass of slurry (TMS) while the U-RH system had a cumulative gas yield of 146.3 ± 2.07 L/TMS. When blended and treated the cumulative biogas yield of the C-RH significantly increased (p≤ 0.05) to 168.3 ± 2.26L/ TMS. The different digester systems became flammable at different periods.

The biogas from the C-RH system ignited on the 4th day of the digestion period while U-RH and P-RH systems produced flammable gas on the 5th and 6th days, respectively. Generally, the results showed that chemical treatment enhanced the biogas production of the rice husks in terms of cumulative gas yield and onset of gas flammability. The overall results indicate that combining the two types of rice
husk gives the best results in terms of those two parameters.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.1 The Meaning of Drug Abuse—–13

2.2 The Problem of Drug Abuse—–13

2.3 Disadvantage of Drug Abuse—-14

2.4 Normal Ways of Drug use—–15

2.5 Common Ways of Drug Abuse—-17

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and Interpretation of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

 

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM CHEMICALLY-TREATED POWDERED AND UN-POWDERED RICE HUSKS

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