EFFECTS OF PROJECT AND DEMONSTRATION TEACHING METHODS ON ACQUISITION OF BROODING SKILLS IN POULTRY AMONG STUDENTS IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA
This research was carried out to determine the effects of project and demonstration teaching methods on acquisition of brooding skills among students in colleges of education in Plateau State, Nigeria. The study had three objectives, three research questions and three null hypotheseswhich were stated to guide the researcher. The study adopted quasi-experimental, pretest post-test design. The population for the study consist of all the 147 N.C.E. two agricultural education students of the two colleges of education in Plateau State. Purposive sampling was used to select the Federal College of Education Pankshin and 75 N.C.E. two students were selected using simple random sampling technique. A 25-item multiple choice agricultural skill acquisition test was used for data collection. The instrument was administered before and after treatments (pretest and post-test) and the scores obtained were analyse using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. All the threeresearch questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while t-test statistics was used to test all the threenull hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance (P=0.05). The findings revealed that both project and demonstration teaching methods had significant effects on students’ acquisition of brooding skills. The result also showed that, project teaching method was more effective in teaching brooding skills than demonstration teaching method. Therefore, the researcher concluded that, project teaching method will enhance students’ acquisition of brooding skills than demonstration teaching method, and that use of project and demonstration teaching methods to teach brooding skills will be more effective in facilitating agricultural education students’ acquisition of brooding skills than the conventional lecture method.The researcher recommended among other things that, agricultural education teachers should emphasise the importance of using project and demonstration teaching methods in colleges of education, and adopt these methods for teaching
agricultural education skills areas.
1.1 Background to the Study
Agricultural science education as one of the core vocational education courses taught in colleges of education can be a key driver of skills acquisition if the appropriate teaching methods are used to teach students. This is because, vocational education generally is aimed at providing technical competence required for career application. Competency refers to the ability, capability, proficiency, accomplishment, expertise, skill, prowess, mastery and talent one possess through experience and training which can be put to practice or used to do something successfully or efficiently. There are basically three domains of competency viz: knowledge, skill and affective. These three are interwoven in terms of enhancing an individual to perform a given task. Boulet, (2015) defines Knowledge as information acquired through sensory input: Reading, watching, listening, touching, etc. Skills, however, refer to the ability to apply knowledge to specific situations. The concept of knowledge refers to familiarity with factual information and theoretical concepts. Knowledge can be transferred from one person to another or it can be self-acquired through observation and study. Skills are developed through practice, through a combination of sensory input and output. As an example, social skills are developed through interaction with people by observing, listening, and speaking with them. Trial and error is probably the best way to achieve skills mastery. The emergence of career education and rising interest in job related courses and the employers’ of labour emphasis on production skills acquisition before job placement have made the need for rapid expansion of employment related education expedient in Nigeria, especially now that the country is under the pressure of high and rising unemployment rate.This work focuses on skills as it sought to determine the effects of project and demonstration teaching methods on the ability of colleges of education students to apply knowledge to specific situationsbrooding.
Teaching methods are tools used by teachers to impart knowledge and competencies to students. There are several teaching methods available to agricultural education teachersin colleges of education such as demonstration, discussion, field trip, lecture etc. most of which are practical methods but not all are effective for teaching agricultural skills. These methods are said to be effective only when they are able to enhanceagricultural skills acquisition within the required possible duration of training. A method that promotes hands-on or practical students participation will likely enhanceagricultural skill acquisition than those that promote only cognitive reasoning. Amoah (2009) went further to state that agricultural education programme content teaching and learning should be practical oriented.This follows the agricultural pedagogical fact that vocational skills are better acquired when learners (students) learn by doing. The duration for learning a skill and the level a learner attains at the end is also dependent on how the learner is being taught. The desire for functional instructional method to teaching and learning is becoming stronger among teachers at all levels of educational systems which is a proof of the fact that teaching approaches are important to skills acquisition.
The study therefore, looked at how these teaching methods, project and demonstration can have effects on agricultural science skills acquisition in colleges of education. Project method refers to a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and tasks (Robert & Harlin,
2007). This process can last for varying time periods and can extend over multiple content areas. It is a set of teaching approach which enable teachers to guide students through indepth studies of real world topics. This set of methodaccording to Udofia and
Aniefiok(2013)involves experimentation, instructions and illustration. Projects are described as having a complex but flexible structural framework with features that characterize the teaching-learning interaction depending largely on instructional methods.Project method is one of the instructional methods used by vocational and technical instructors as it enables students’ participation and fast acquisition of skills (Edu, Ayang & Idaka, 2012). Asuquo (2005) explains that project method is one of the most effective instructional methods which enhances students’ participation and quick assimilation of skills in vocational and technical education. It is like assignment method in which a task is given to the students or a number of tasks are shared to students to carry out (written or practical) allowing a great deal of students involvement right from the planning stage, the sketch of the project, the steps of executing it, the tools, equipment and materials to be used, up to the assembling stage of the project. A project seems to be a versatile teaching approach which facilitates teaching and assessing learners’ performance simultaneously without impacting negatively on the learner who learns independently.
Project approach seems to have the components to motivate teachers and students to develop a cooperative work mainly aiming at the students to perceive and understand all the necessary stages required to arrive at logical conclusion. Research shows that learners do not only respond by giving useful information, but they also actively use what they know to explore, negotiate, interpret and create. Education has benefited from this teaching approach, as teachers have learned how to effectively select content and activities to amplify and extend the skills and capabilities of students (Edu et al. 2012).
Demonstration teaching approach on the other hand, is a method of teaching concepts, principles or real things by combining explanation with handling or manipulation of real things, equipment or materials (Edu, et al. 2012). It involves showing by reason or proof, explaining or making clear by use of examples or experiments.Therefore, the greater the degree of participation and sensory involvement by the learner during the demonstration, the more effective learning will be. Demonstration approach can bridge the gap between theory and practice, controls the rate of breakages of tools and equipment, and accidents as students watch the teacher do it before attempting to do the same. It is learning by doing approach and so enables the teacher to teach manipulative and operational skills within a short time using little material. So, this research intended to further examine effects of project and demonstration teaching approaches on agricultural science students’ skills acquisition.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Most graduates of colleges of education are incapable of using agricultural
skills for livelihood application in spiteof the lucrative nature of agribusinesses and the quick return on investment. One canattribute this to poor acquisition of agricultural skills by graduates and evident in their reliance on government to employ them instead of gainfully engaging themselves in agricultural vocations after graduation. The proceeding of the 43rd annual conference of Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) 2002, reports that emphasis is still on cognitive achievement and passing of examinations and not on production ability (Eleobhose & Uhumuavbi, 2002).
The inability to put into practice what is taught is viewed as the cause of relative backwardness of most societies. This observation hasraised doubts on the efficacy of the teaching methods used by teachers considering the fact that the goal of all vocational and technical education as provided by the National Policy on Education is to provide vocational skills necessary for agricultural productivity, development and self-reliance.So, the researcher wonders, whether colleges of education studentsare generally incapable of understanding and practicing agricultural science skills or the teaching methods used in training them are not appropriate to promote skills acquisition as provided by the curricula.
Furthermore, lecture teaching method has been adopted as a conventional
method to teaching almost all courses at the colleges of education. This is the same even among teachers of vocational and technical education.It seems to be the most used in teaching agricultural education in colleges of education. Edu et al.(2012) reported that the acquisition of skills and qualifications that are saleable in employment market which are the key expectations of modern learning needs should be the goal of educational institution. Therefore, if the agricultural education students in colleges of education have to acquire skills that make them functional, teaching methods that promote participation and skills acquisition are necessary.
The researcher has also observed that the teaching of agricultural science at the primary and secondary schools levels where most of the N. C. E. graduates are expected to teach require sound background in the practice of agriculture. To effectively teach, they must themselves be well trained using practical methods that promote real world conditions. But previous researchers concentrated most of their work on teaching methods that teachers used at the primary and secondary schools with little attention to how the teachers themselves were trained.Since the method of presentation is so important, teachers including the pre-service teachers should be concerned not only with general methodology but also with some special methods of teaching various subjects (Ogologo & Wagbara, 2013).
Also, Obanya (2002) reported that improving the quality of delivery of teaching is a system-wide problem in Nigerian higher institutions.In an attempt to proffer the way forward to these identified problems the study seek to find out theeffects of project and demonstration teaching methods on acquisition of agricultural skills among students in colleges of education in Plateau state, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study is to determine the effects of project and demonstration teaching methods on students’ acquisition of agricultural skills in colleges of education in Plateau state with specific objectives to:
- Find out the effect of project teaching method on students’ acquisition of brooding skills in colleges of education.
- Identify the effect of demonstration teaching brooding on students’ acquisition of brooding skills in colleges of education.
- Compare the effect of project and demonstration teaching methods on students’ acquisition of brooding skills in colleges of education.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the effect of project teaching method on students’ acquisition of brooding skills in colleges of education?
- What is the effect of demonstration teaching method on students’ acquisition of brooding skills in colleges of education?
- What is the difference between skill acquisition of students taught using project teaching method and those exposed to demonstration teaching method?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were generated for the study and tested at 0.05 level of significance (p=0.05):
HO1: There is no significant effect of project teaching methodon students’ acquisition of brooding skills in colleges of education.
HO2: There is no significant effect of demonstration teaching methodon students’ acquisition of brooding skillsin colleges of education.
HO3: There is no significant difference betweenthe effect of project teaching method and demonstration teaching method on students’ acquisition of brooding skillsin colleges of education.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The finding of this study will benefit teachers, students, college of education curriculum/policymakers and the nation at large.
The study will help teachers to identify most effective teaching method for facilitating skills acquisition. This will make agricultural education programme more functional at the college level.Students of college of education will be able to apply agricultural skills they have been taught for livelihood. Graduates of colleges of education will effectively teach students at the secondary schools’ level with practical methods which will promote agriculture as a vocation. The graduates will also be better engaged in productive agriculture as a means of livelihood.
Also, the research will help national commission for colleges of education (NCCE) to amend the college of education curricula to promote practical instructional methods and discourage the use of lecture method in teaching vocational agricultural science education in colleges of education in Nigeria. Furthermore, students acquire adequate skills needed for taking agriculture as a vocation for self-reliance as stipulated in the national goals of vocational and technical education (NPE, 2004)when taught using appropriate practical approach. This will enhance agricultural growth and development as well as career opportunities in agriculture.Therefore creating employment even for other job seekers; hence, reduced the menace of unemployment in the country and also contribute to the national gross domestic products to improve the national economy.
1.7 Assumption of the Study
The researcher carried the study with assumptions that:
- Project and demonstration teaching methods can promote brooding skills acquisition among students in colleges of education.
- Teaching methods determine the level of students’ method skills acquisition.
- Different teaching methods enhances acquisition of skills differently.
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The research was delimited to the effect of Project and demonstration teaching methods on acquisition of brooding skills among students in colleges of education in Plateau State. The research was also delimited to the N. C. E students of Plateau state College of Education, Gindiri, and the Federal College of Education, Pankshin. The research was further delimited to N.C.E. II students because they are the ideal practical class at the colleges’ level and they have undergone some level of training as they are in their second year of study.
EFFECTS OF PROJECT AND DEMONSTRATION TEACHING METHODS ON ACQUISITION OF BROODING SKILLS IN POULTRY AMONG STUDENTS IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA